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Van begrippen naar toepassingen

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Presentatie over: "Van begrippen naar toepassingen"— Transcript van de presentatie:

1 Van begrippen naar toepassingen
Motivatie Van begrippen naar toepassingen Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 5

2 Leerdoelen De vier ingrediënten van MBO-programma's te noemen
De vijf stappen in het probleemoplossingsmodel van OG Mod te beschrijven Uiteen te zetten waarom managers programma's voor grotere betrokkenheid van werknemers invoeren Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 5

3 Leerdoelen Een definitie te geven van kwaliteitskringen
Uit te leggen hoe aandelenbezit de motivatie van werknemers versterkt Het verband te schetsen tussen variabele beloning en motivatietheorieën Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 5

4 Wat is Management by Objectives?
Algehele organisatie- doelstellingen Divisie- doelstellingen Afdelings- doelstellingen Management by objectives (MBO) emphasizes participation to set goals that are tangible, verifiable, and measurable. MBO’s appeal lies in its emphasis on converting overall organizational objectives into specific objectives for units and members of the organization. As the figure above shows, the organization’s overall objectives are translated into specific objectives for each succeeding level (divisional, departmental, or individual) in the organization. But because lower-unit managers jointly participate in setting their own goals, MBO works from the “bottom-up” as well as from the “top down.” The result is a hierarchy of objectives that links objectives at one level to those at the next level. And for the individual worker, MBO provides specific personal performance objectives. So each person has an identified specific contribution to make to his or her unit’s performance. If all individuals achieve their goals, then their unit’s goals will be attained and the overall objectives of the organization will become a reality. Individuele doelstellingen Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 5

5 Elementen MBO concrete doelen participatieve besluitvorming expliciete
There are four ingredients common to MBO programs: participation in decision making, goal specificity, an explicit time period, and performance feedback. MBO objectives should be concise statements of expected accomplishments. It is not enough merely to state the desire to cut costs, improve service, or boost quality. Such desires have to be converted into tangible objectives that can be measured and evaluated: for example, to cut costs by seven percent. The objectives of MBO are not unilaterally set by the boss and then assigned to subordinates. MBO replaces imposed goals with participatively set goals. The superior and subordinate jointly choose the goals and agree on how they will be measured. Each objective has a specific time period in which it is to be completed. So managers have not only specific objectives but also stipulated time periods in which to accomplish them. The final feedback in an MBO program is feedback on performance. MBO seeks to give continuous feedback on progress toward goals so that individuals can monitor and correct their own actions. Continuous feedback, supplemented by more formal periodic management evaluations, takes place at all levels of the organization. expliciete deadline feedback over de prestaties Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 5

6 de doelstellingstheorie
MBO gekoppeld aan de doelstellingstheorie Participatie Concrete doelen Feedback over prestaties Moeilijkheidsgraad Goal-setting theory demonstrates that hard goals result in a higher level of individual performance than do easy goals. Furthermore, specific hard goals result in higher levels of performance than do no goals at all or generalized goals of “do your best.” And feedback leads to higher performance. MBO advocates specific goals and feedback. MBO implies, but does not state, that the goals must be perceived as feasible. Consistent with goal setting theory, MBO would be most effective when goals are difficult enough to require that the person must “stretch” to reach them. The only area of disagreement between MBO and goal-setting theory is in the area of participation. MBO strongly advocates it, whereas goal-setting theory notes that assigning goals to subordinates frequently works just as well. The major benefit of participation, however, is that is appears to induce individuals to establish more difficult goals. Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 5

7 Het vijf stappen model van het OG Mod programma
1 Probleemgedrag identificeren dat relevant is voor de prestaties 2 Meten: De frequentie van de respons Bestaande gedragscontingenties via een functionele analyse opsporen Probleem opgelost? 3 Nee 4a Interventiestrategieën ontwikkelen JA A typical OB Mod program follows a five-step problem solving model: (1) identity performance-related behaviors, (2) measure the behaviors, (3) identify behavioral contingencies, (4) develop and implement an intervention strategy, and (5) evaluate performance improvement. Reinforcement theory relies on positive reinforcement, shaping, and recognizing the impact of different schedules of reinforcement on behavior. OB Mod uses these concepts to provide managers with a powerful, proven means for changing employee behavior. OB Mod has been used to improve productivity and to reduce errors, absenteeism, tardiness, and accidents. 4b De juiste strategie in praktijk brengen 4d Meten: De frequentie van de respons na interventie 4c Meten: De frequentie van de respons na interventie 5 Meten: De frequentie van de respons na interventie Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 5

8 erkenning van werknemers
Programma's voor erkenning van werknemers Erkenning definiëren Erkenning en bekrachtiging Recognition can be a powerful motivator. Employee recognition programs can take many forms--the best ones use multiple sources and recognize individual and group accomplishments. Consistent with reinforcement theory, rewarding behavior with recognition immediately following that behavior is likely to encourage its repetition. And that recognition can take many forms: from personal congratulations for a job well done to public celebrations of on-the-job accomplishments. In today’s competitive global marketplace, most organizations are under severe cost constraints. Since it costs relatively little money to recognize superior performance, employee recognition programs are particularly attractive. Maybe that is why a recent survey of 3,000 employers found that two-thirds either use or plan to use special recognition awards. Programma's voor erkenning van werknemers in de praktijk Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 5

9 Programma's voor betrokkenheid van werknemers
Participerend management Representatieve participatie Work teams perform many tasks and assume many of the responsibilities once handled by supervisors. Employee involvement has become a catchall term that covers a variety of techniques--employee participation, empowerment, workplace democracy, and employee ownership. We can define employee involvement as a process of participation that uses the entire capacity of employees and is designed to encourage increased commitment to the organization’s success. There are four main forms of employee involvement. The distinct trait of all participative management programs is joint decision making in which workers share a significant degree of decision-making power with their supervisors. Almost every country in Western Europe has some type of legislation which requires companies to practice representative participation in which workers are represented by a small group of employees who actually participate. The two most common forms are (1) works councils which link employees with management and (2) board representatives who sit on the board of directors and represent the interests of the workers. A quality circle is a group of eight to ten employees and supervisors who share an area of responsibility. They take responsibility for solving quality problems and provide their own feedback, but management controls the final implementation of recommended decisions. Employee stock ownership plans (ESOPs) are benefit plans in which employees acquire stock in the company. Kwaliteits- kringen Aandelenbezit van werknemers Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 5

10 Stukloon Winstdeling Gainsharing Bonussen
Programma's voor variabele beloning Gainsharing Bonussen What differentiates variable-pay plans from more traditional programs is that a person is not paid for time on the job or seniority. A portion of his or her pay is based on some individual or organizational measure of performance. Unlike traditional base-pay plans, there is no guarantee that the worker who made $60,000 last year will make the same amount this year. With variable pay, earnings fluctuate with the measure of performance. This type of pay plan is attractive to management since it turns part of an organization’s fixed labor costs into a variable cost, thus reducing expenses if performance declines. In piece-rate pay plans, workers are paid a fixed sum for each production unit that is completed. In a pure piece-rate plan, a worker gets no base salary and is paid only for what he or she produces. In a modified piece-rate plan, a worker gets a base hourly wage plus a piece-rate differential. Bonuses can be paid to executives for improving the company’s financial fortunes or to all employees based on how much a company earns on its cost of investment capital. Profit-sharing plans are organization-wide programs which distribute compensation based on some established formula designed around a company’s profitability. Gainsharing is a formula-based group incentive plan. Improvements in group productivity from one period to the next determine the total amount of money to be allocated. The savings that are generated by improved productivity are split between the company and the employees. Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 5

11 Beloningssystemen op basis van vaardigheden
flexibiliteit communicatie stelt ambitieuze werknemers tevreden Voordelen als de `top' is bereikt kunnen mensen niet verder vaardigheden verouderen niveau van de prestaties irrelevant Skill-based pay is an alternative to job-based pay. Rather than allowing a job title to define a pay category, individuals are paid based on how many skills they have or how many jobs they can do. Skill-based pay promotes flexibility. Filling staffing needs is easier when employee skills are interchangeable. Skill-based pay facilitates communication in the organization as people learn about the jobs that others do. It also helps meet the needs of ambitious workers who confront minimal advancement opportunities. The down-side of skill-based pay is that people can “top out” by learning all the skills the program calls for. Also, skills can become obsolete. Finally, skill-based plans do not address level of performance, only whether someone has a particular skill. Although it is possible to assess how well employees perform each of the skills and combine that assessment with a skill-based plan, doing so is not an inherent part of skill-based pay. Nadelen Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 5

12 Beloningssystemen naar vaardigheden gekoppeld aan motivatietheorieën
behoeftenhiërarchie prestatiedrang Skill-based plans are consistent with several theories of motivation. Since they encourage employees to expand their skills and grow, they are consistent with Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory. Among employees whose lower-order needs are substantially satisfied, the opportunity to grow can be a motivator. Paying people to expand their skills is also consistent with research on the need for achievement. High achievers have a compelling need to do things better or more efficiently. By improving their skills or learning new ones, high achievers will find their jobs more challenging. There is also a link between skill-based pay and reinforcement theory. Skill-based pay encourages employees to learn, cross-train, and cooperate with others on the job. To the degree that management wants employees to behave in such ways, skill-based pay should reinforce those behaviors. Skill-based pay may also have equity implications. When employees make their input-output comparisons, skills may provide a fairer input criterion for determining pay than factors such as seniority or education. The use of skill-based pay may increase the perception of equity, therefore, and help optimize employee motivation. bekrachtigingstheorie rechtvaardigheids- theorie Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 5

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