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Communicatie Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 9.

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Presentatie over: "Communicatie Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 9."— Transcript van de presentatie:

1 Communicatie Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 9

2 Leerdoelen Een definitie te geven van communicatie en de vier functies ervan te noemen Het communicatieproces te beschrijven De verschillen en overeenkomsten tussen de drie veel voorkomende netwerken van kleine groepen te bespreken Aan te geven welke factoren meespelen bij de geruchtenmolen Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 9

3 Leerdoelen Veel voorkomende hinderpalen voor een effectieve communicatie te beschrijven Vier regels te noemen om cross-culturele communicatie te verbeteren Gedrag te schetsen dat samengaat met het geven effectieve feedback Gedrag te noemen dat samengaat met actief en goed luisteren Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 9

4 De functies van communicatie
controle motivatie Communication serves four functions within a group or organization. Communication controls member behavior in several ways. Organizations have formal hierarchies and guidelines that employees are expected to follow. Informal communication also controls behavior. For example, when work groups tease or harass a member who either under-produces or produces too much, they are controlling the member’s behavior. Communication fosters motivation by clarifying for employees what is to be done, how well they are doing, and what can be done to improve performance. For many workers, their workgroup is a primary source for social interaction. On-the-job communication, therefore, provides an outlet for the expression of emotions and fulfillment of social needs. Communication facilitates decision making. It provides the information that individuals and groups need to make decisions. informatie emotionele expressie Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 9

5 Het communicatieproces
Codering Boodschap Kanaal Decodering Boodschap Boodschap Boodschap Zender Boodschap Ontvanger Before communication can take place, a purpose, expressed as a message to be conveyed, is needed. It passes between a source (the sender) and a receiver. The message is encoded (converted to a symbolic form) and passed by way of some medium (channel) to the receiver, who translates (decodes) the message initiated by the seller. The result is a transference of meaning from one person to another. The slide above depicts the communication process. The model is made of seven parts: (1) the communication source, (2) the message, (3) encoding, (4) the channel, (5) decoding, (6) the receiver, and (7) feedback. The communication source initiates a message by encoding a thought. The message is the actual physical product from the source encoding. The channel is the medium through which the message travels. The receiver is the object to whom the message is directed. But before the message can be received, the symbols in it must be translated into a form that can be understood by the receiver. This step is the decoding of the message. The final link in the communication process is feedback--the check on how successful we have been in transferring our messages as originally intended. Feedback Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 9

6 De richting van communicatie
Naar beneden Naar boven Lateraal Communication can flow vertically or laterally. The vertical dimension can be further divided into downward and upward directions. Upward communication flows to a higher level in the group or organization. It’s used to provide feedback to higher-ups, inform them of progress toward goals, and relay current problems. Upward communication keeps managers informed about how employees feel about their jobs, co-workers, and the organization in general. Communication that flows from one level of a group or organization to a lower level is a downward communication. When managers communicate with subordinates, the downward pattern is normally used to assign goals, provide job instructions, disseminate policies and procedures, point out problems that need attention, and offer performance feedback. Lateral communication takes place among members of the same work group, among members of work groups at the same level, among managers at the same level, or among any horizontally equivalent personnel. Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 9

7 Manieren van communiceren
mondeling schriftelijk nonverbaal The chief means of conveying messages is oral or spoken communication. Speeches, formal one-on-one or group discussions, and the informal rumor mill or grapevine are popular forms of spoken communication. The advantages of oral communication are speed and feedback. The major disadvantage of oral communication surfaces whenever the message has to be passed through a number of people. The more people through whom a message must pass, the greater the potential for distortion. Written communications include letters, memos, , fax transmissions, and notices placed on bulletin boards. Written communication is tangible and verifiable because the sender and receiver have a hard copy of the message. The message can be stored and if there are questions about its content, the hard copy can be referenced. Another benefit of written communication is the process itself. Because most people are more careful about written messages than about spoken messages, written communications are more likely to be well thought out, clear, and logical. Some of the most meaningful communications are not conveyed orally or in writing. These are the “not-so-obvious” nonverbal communications. For our purposes, nonverbal communication includes body movements, the emphasis or intonation we give to words, facial expressions, and the physical distance between the sender and the receiver. Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 9

8 Drie veelvoorkomende netwerken voor kleine groepen
Three types of small-group networks are the chain, wheel, and all-channel. The chain rigidly follows the chain of command. The wheel relies on the leader to act as the central conduit for all the group’s communication. The all-channel permits all group members to actively communicate with one another. The all-channel network characterizes the problem-solving task force, in which all group members are free to contribute. The effectiveness of each type of network depends on the goals of the group. If speed is important, for example, the wheel and all-channel networks are best. For accuracy, choose the chain or wheel. The wheel is best for allowing leaders to emerge. And if member satisfaction is important, the all-channel network is the best choice and the wheel is the worst choice. Keten Wiel Compleet netwerk Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 9

9 Geruchtencircuit nauwkeurigheid angst ambiguïteit
The formal system is not the only communication system in an organization or a group. There is also an informal system--where information flows along the well-known grapevine and rumors can flourish. Is the information that flows along the grapevine accurate? Evidence indicates that about 75 percent the information is accurate. But what conditions foster the grapevine? It is frequently assumed that rumors start because they make titillating gossip. This is rarely the case. Rumors emerge as a response to situations that are important to us, where there is ambiguity, and under conditions that arouse anxiety. The fact that workplace situations frequently contain these elements explains why rumors flourish in organizations. Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 9

10 Factoren die de communicatie belemmeren
Emoties Selectieve waarneming Nonverbale signalen Filters Mannen versus vrouwen Taal Factoren die de communicatie belemmeren Filtering refers to a sender’s purposely manipulating information so that it will be seen more favorably by the receiver. When an employee tells his boss what he wants to hear, for example, he is filtering information. Selective perception occurs when the receiver of a message sees or hears it based on his needs, motivations, experience, background, and other personal characteristics. Men and women use oral communication for different reasons. Research indicates that men use talk to emphasize status, but women use it to create connection. So gender styles can be a barrier to effective communication. How a receiver feels when he or she receives a communication will affect how it is interpreted. Extreme emotions are most likely to block communication. Words mean different things to different people. Age, education, and cultural background are obvious variables that influences the language a person uses and the definitions he gives to words. The point is that even though we may speak a common language--English, for example--our usage of the language is far from uniform. Oral communication almost always accompanies nonverbal communication. As long as the two are in agreement, they reinforce each other. But when nonverbal cues are inconsistent with the spoken message, the clarity of the message will suffer. Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 9

11 Cross-culturele communicatie
Ga uit van verschillen zolang overeenkomsten niet bewezen zijn. Benadruk beschrijvingen in plaats van interpretaties of evaluaties. Leef je in de ander in. Beschouw je interpretatie als een werkhypothese. When communicating with people from a different culture, what can be done to reduce miscommunication? The following guidelines can be helpful. 1. Assume differences until similarity is proved. People from other countries are often very different from us. So you are far less likely to err if you assume that others are different rather than assuming they are like you. 2. Emphasize description rather than interpretation or evaluation. Delay judgment until you have had sufficient time to observe and interpret the situation from the perspectives of the cultures involved. 3. Practice empathy. Before sending a message, put yourself in the receiver’s shoes. What are his values, experiences, and frames of reference? 4. Treat your interpretation as a working hypothesis that needs further testing rather than as a certainty. Carefully assess the feedback provided by the receivers to see if it confirms your hypothesis. Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 9

12 Managers moeten feedback geven
Concentreer je op specifiek gedrag Houd feedback en persoon gescheiden Zorg dat de feedback doelgericht is Let op een goede timing van de feedback Managers moeten feedback geven Overtuig je ervan dat de feedback overkomt Richt negatieve feedback op gedrag dat de ontvanger in eigen hand heeft The following specific suggestions can help managers to be more effective when providing feedback to others. Focus on specific behaviors. Feedback should be specific, not general. Keep feedback impersonal. Feedback should be job related. Never criticize a person because of an inappropriate action. Keep feedback goal oriented. If a manager has to say something negative, it should be directed toward the recipient’s goals. Make feedback well timed. Feedback is most meaningful when there is a short interval between behavior and the receipt of feedback. Ensure understanding. Make sure that the feedback is concise and complete enough for the recipient to clearly and fully understand the communication. Direct negative feedback toward behavior that is controllable by the recipient. There is little value in reminding a person of a shortcoming over which he or she has no control. Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 9

13 Managers moeten goed kunnen luisteren
Maak oogcontact. Knik en maak gebruik van gezichtsexpressie Stel vragen Doe niets wat de aandacht afleidt. Parafraseer Val de ander niet in de rede Praat niet te veel The following guidelines can help managers to be more effective listeners. Make eye contact. We listen with our ears, but people judge whether we are listening by looking at our eyes. Avoid distracting gestures or actions. Avoid actions which suggest that you are not paying attention. Ask questions. Questioning provides clarification, ensures understanding, and assures the speaker that you are listening. Exhibit affirmative head nods or appropriate facial expressions. An effective listener uses nonverbal signals to show that he or she is interested in what is being said. Paraphrasing acts as an excellent control device to check on whether someone is listening carefully. It is also a control for accuracy. Avoid interrupting the speaker. Let a speaker complete his or her thoughts before responding. Do not over-talk. Talking may be fun and silence may be uncomfortable, but it is impossible to talk and listen at the same time. Listen as well as speak. The goal is to improve one’s ability to receive the full meaning of a communication without distorting it by premature judgments. Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 9

14 Communicatievaardigheden je nonverbale signalen
Gebruik eenvoudige taal Houd emoties in bedwang Communicatievaardigheden voor managers Schenk aandacht aan je nonverbale signalen Because language can be a barrier, managers should structure messages in ways that will make them clear and understandable. Words should be chosen carefully. A manager must simplify his or her language and consider the audience for whom the message is intended. It would be naïve to assume that a manager is always rational when he or she is communicating. Since emotion can distort the transference of meaning, the best approach for a manager who is upset is to wait before trying to send a message. Since actions can speak louder than words, managers must watch their actions to be sure that they align with and reinforce their verbal messages. The grapevine cannot be eliminated. So managers should make it work for them. They can transmit information over the grapevine to test the reaction of employees before they make decisions. To minimize the impact of damaging rumors on the grapevine, managers should use formal channels by ensuring that they carry relevant, accurate information that will be of interest to employees. Benut het geruchtencircuit Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 9


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