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Technologie en functie-ontwerp

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Presentatie over: "Technologie en functie-ontwerp"— Transcript van de presentatie:

1 Technologie en functie-ontwerp
Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 14

2 Leerdoelen De verschillen en overeenkomsten tussen re-engineering en Total Quality Management aan te geven De gevolgen te beschrijven van flexibele productiesystemen voor degenen die er werken Aan te geven wie de gevolgen ondervinden van verouderende werknemersvaardigheden Het taakkarakteristieken-model (JCM) te beschrijven Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 14

3 Leerdoelen Het model voor sociale informatieverwerking af te zetten tegen het taakkarakteristieken-model (JCM) Uit te leggen hoe werk verrijkt kan worden Te verklaren hoe taken/banen kunnen verouderen Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 14

4 Technologie op het werk
Re-engineering van werkprocessen Total Quality Management (TQM) kwaliteit en continue procesverbetering minder variatie meer uniformiteit identificeren van distinctieve competenties kernprocessen beoordelen horizontale processen Total Quality Management stresses that good isn’t good enough! Consider 99.9 percent error-free performance. Using this standard, the U. S. Postal Service would loose 2,000 pieces of mail per hour. TQM programs use continuous process improvement to pursue continuous variability reduction that yields increased uniformity, reduced costs, and higher quality. Rather than seeing work projects as being linear, continuous quality improvement requires a circular approach, the search for continuous improvement is a race without a finish line. Employees will no longer be able to rest on their previous accomplishments and successes. As members of empowered work teams, they will have hands-on involvement in process improvement. So stress increases in a marketplace that no longer accepts complacency with the status quo. When reengineering an organization, management starts with a clean sheet of paper, rethinks and redesigns the processes used to create value or complete work, and eliminates redundant operations. There are three key elements of reengineering an organization. Identifying distinctive competencies uncovers the core processes that determine a firm’s competitive weapons. Assessing core competencies often uncovers activities whose only justification is “we’ve always done it this way.” Reorganizing horizontally by processes means using cross-functional or self-managed teams, focusing on processes rather than functions, and cutting levels of middle management. Organizations that have gotten top heavy must reengineer to compete in a changing global environment. The 1950s, 1960s, and much of the 1970s were times of stable growth, well suited to mechanistic organizations. Mechanistic organizations minimized direct labor costs through specialization, functional departments, and narrow spans of control, but their bureaucracies increased overhead costs. Today’s environment is different: organizations operate in conditions of over-capacity, customers are more sophisticated, and markets, production, and capital are globally mobile. Organizations have responded by using teams, decentralizing decision making, widening spans of control, and flattening structures. Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 14

5 Re-engineering versus TQM
Continue verandering Verbeteren Bottom up Radicale verandering Herontwerpen Top down While both emphasize process and customer satisfaction, reengineering and TQM diverge dramatically. While TQM seeks incremental improvements to an existing system, reengineering pursues quantum leaps in performance by eliminating redundant operations and starting over. TQM relies on bottom-up, participative decision making to plan and execute the program. Reengineering is top-management driven, an essentially non-democratic process. Implications for employees Reengineering is gaining momentum in business and industry because in today’s competitive global marketplace, companies must reengineer their work processes just to survive. Some experts say that reengineering will eliminate between 1 million and 2.5 million jobs each year for the foreseeable future. When reengineering occurs, workers suffer from anxiety caused by taking on new tasks and discarding long-established work practices and social networks. Those who keep their jobs will find that their jobs have changed. The new jobs will require a wider range of skills and offer more challenges and higher pay. Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 14

6 Flexibele productiesystemen
Processen Medewerkers Flexibele technologieën Procesintegratie Lagere kosten per eenheid Hogere vaardigheden Empowerment Besluitvorming In the past, customers were willing to accept standardized products, so fixed assembly lines made sense. In a global economy, flexible manufacturing systems can help companies to meet the diverse needs of their customers and to beat the competition. Flexible manufacturing systems integrate computer-aided-design, engineering, and manufacturing to produce low-volume products at a cost comparable to products which were mass produced. In effect, these systems are repealing the laws of economies of scale. High-volume production is no longer needed to achieve low per-unit production costs. When management wants to produce a new part, it does not change machines--it just changes the computer program. Flexible manufacturing systems require a new breed of employee. Workers need more training and higher skills. Since there are fewer workers, each one has to do a greater variety of tasks. In a flexible manufacturing facility the environment is more organic; therefore, employees work on teams and have considerable decision-making discretion. Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 14

7 Technologie en verouderde werknemersvaardigheden
Kennis en vaardigheden Routinetaken en automatisering Re-engineering van werkprocessen New technologies driven by computers, reengineering, TQM, and flexible manufacturing systems are cutting the “shelf life” of the knowledge, skills, and abilities that employees need to succeed. Repetitive tasks will continue to be computerized, and many jobs will be upgraded. For instance, as more managers and professionals write their own letters, memos and reports, the traditional secretary’s job will evolve into an administrative assistant’s job. Reengineering is causing increased worker productivity; the redesign of work processes is achieving higher output with fewer workers. Reengineered jobs will require self-motivated, computer-literate employees with excellent communication skills. The concept of obsolescence does not exclude managers. Middle managers who merely acted as information conduits between upper management and the operating floor are being eliminated. Successful managers will be adept at coaching, listening, motivation, and team-support skills. Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 14

8 Theorieën over taakkarakteristieken
Researchers have noticed that jobs are different and some are more interesting and challenging than others. They have developed theories that seek to identify the characteristics of jobs, how these characteristics are combined to form jobs, and the relationship of these task characteristics to the satisfaction, motivation, and performance of employees. The next few slides present three of these theories: requisite task attributes, the job characteristics model, and the social information-processing model. Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 14

9 vereiste taakattributen
Theorie van de vereiste taakattributen variatie autonomie verantwoor- delijkheid kennis en vaardigheden In the mid-1960s, Paul Lawrence and Arthur Turner did research to assess the effects of different kinds of jobs on the satisfaction and absenteeism of workers. They predicted that jobs which were complex and challenging would increase satisfaction, thereby lowering absenteeism. They defined complexity in terms of variety, autonomy, responsibility, knowledge and skill required, optional social interaction, and required social interaction. The higher a job scored on these characteristics, the more complex it was. Their findings confirmed the absenteeism prediction: high-complexity tasks and low absenteeism. At first, they found no general correlation between task complexity and satisfaction. Then they examined their data according to the background of employees. Employees from urban settings were shown to be more satisfied with low-complexity jobs. Employees from rural settings were more satisfied with high-complexity jobs. Turner and Lawrence concluded that (1) workers in large communities had a variety of nonwork interests and were less motivated by their work, and (2) workers from smaller towns had fewer nonwork interests and were more receptive to the complex tasks of their jobs. The work of Turner and Lawrence demonstrated that employees did respond differently to different kinds of jobs. They provided a preliminary set of task attributes by which jobs could be assessed. And they focused attention on the way individual differences influence an employee’s reaction to his or her job. vereiste sociale interactie vrijwillige sociale interactie Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 14

10 Variatie Taakidentiteit Taakbelang Autonomie Feedback Job
characteristics model (JCM) The Job Characteristics Model (JCM) proposes that any job can be described in terms of the following five core job dimensions: Skill variety. Does the job require workers to use different skills and abilities? Task identity. Does the job require workers to complete identifiable pieces of work? Task significance. Does the job have a significant impact on the lives or work of others? Autonomy. Does the job allow workers substantial freedom, discretion, and independence? Feedback. Does the job allow workers to obtain direct, clear performance information? Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 14

11 Voorbeelden van hoge en lage taakkarakteristieken
Karakteristiek Voorbeeld Variatie in vaardigheden Hoog De eigenaar/monteur van een garage die elektrische reparaties uitvoert, motoren verbouwt, werkzaamheden aan chassis verricht en met klanten omgaat Laag Een werknemer in een autofabriek die acht uur per dag autolak opspuit Taakidentiteit Hoog Een timmerman die een meubelstuk ontwerpt, het hout uitkiest, het meubel maakt en perfect afwerkt Laag Een werknemer in een meubelfabriek die tafelpoten maakt aan de draaibank Taakbelang Hoog Patiënten verzorgen op de intensive-care afdeling Laag Vloeren dweilen in een ziekenhuis Autonomie Hoog Een telefooninstallateur die zijn werk zelf indeelt, zelfstandig bezoeken aflegt en de beste techniek uitkiest voor een installatie Laag Een telefoniste die binnenkomende gesprekken volgens een gedetailleerde standaardprocedure moet afhandelen Feedback Hoog Een werknemer in een elektronicafabriek die een modem in elkaar zet en test Laag Een werknemer in een elektronicafabriek die een modem in elkaar zet en doorstuurt naar iemand van de kwaliteitscontrole, die het apparaat test en zonodig bijstelt The figure above offers examples of job activities that rate high and low for each characteristic. Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 14

12 Het model van taakkarakteristieken
Kenmerken van taken Kritische psychologische condities Persoonlijk resultaat en werkprestaties Variatie in vaardigheden Taakidentiteit Taakbelang Ervaren zinvolheid van het werk Sterke innerlijke motivatie Kwalitatief goed werk Hoge arbeidssatisfactie Weinig verzuim en verloop Ervaren verantwoordelijkheid voor werkresultaten Autonomie The first three dimensions--skill variety, task identity, and task significance--combine to create meaningful work. The jobs that possess autonomy give the worker a feeling of personal responsibility for the results. If a job provides feedback, the worker will know how well he or she is performing. From the standpoint of motivation, internal rewards are obtained by a worker who learns (knowledge of results) that she personally (experienced responsibility) has done well on a task that she cares about (experienced meaningfulness). The more that these three elements are present, the greater will be the employee’s motivation, performance, and satisfaction. The links between job dimensions and outcomes are moderated by the strength of the individual’s growth need: that is, by his or her desire for self-esteem and self-actualization. Therefore, those with high growth needs are more likely to experience the psychological states when their jobs are enriched than those with low growth need. Research has shown the following: 1. The model is a usable framework for defining the core characteristics in a cross-section of jobs. 2. Workers whose jobs rate high on core job dimensions are generally more motivated, satisfied, and productive than workers whose jobs rate low. 3. Job dimensions influence personal and work outcome by operating through the critical psychological states rather than influencing outcomes directly. Kennis van de feitelijke werkresultaten Feedback Behoefte werknemer aan persoonlijke groei Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 14

13 Het sociale informatieverwerkingsmodel
Objectieve situatie Waarnemen No two workers will evaluate the same job in exactly the same way. The Social Information Processing Model (SIP) postulates that people respond to their jobs according to their perception of them rather than to the objective characteristics of the job. This model asserts that employees adopt attitudes and behaviors in response to social cues provided by day-to-day contacts with others: co-workers, supervisors, friends, family members, or customers. Because employee motivation can be manipulated by these contacts, managers should pay as much attention to employees’ perceptions of their jobs as they give to the objective characteristics of the jobs. Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 14

14 Herontwerp van taken Taakverbreding Taakroulatie Taakverrijking
When managers want to redesign or change the makeup of jobs, they can use several options: job rotation, job enlargement, and job enrichment. When jobs have become over-routine for workers, one alternative is to use job rotation or cross-training. If an activity is no longer challenging, the worker is rotated to another job, at the same level, with similar skill requirements. Job rotation reduces boredom and boosts motivation through diversification of activities. It also helps workers broaden their skill levels, so management will have greater flexibility in scheduling work, adapting to changes, and filling vacancies. However, training costs are increased and productivity is decreased by moving a worker into a new job just when his or her efficiency at the prior job was creating organizational economies. Job rotation also disrupts work flow as members of a work group adjust to the new employee. The supervisor may also have to spend more time answering questions and monitoring the new employee’s work. Also job rotation can demotivate ambitious trainees who seek specific responsibilities within their chosen specialties. The idea of expanding jobs horizontally--job enlargement--was implemented over 30 years ago. Increasing the number and variety of tasks that a worker performed resulted in jobs with more diversity. However, job enlargement did little to instill meaning or challenge into a worker’s activities. Job enrichment was introduced to deal with the shortcomings of job enlargement. Taakroulatie Taakverrijking Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 14

15 Richtlijnen voor taakverrijking
Voorgestelde actie Kerndimensies taak Natuurlijke werkeenheden creëren Cliëntrelatie opbouwen Verticaal uitbreiden Feedbackkanalen openen Taken combineren Taakidentiteit Taakbelang Autonomie Feedback Variatie vaardigheden Job enrichment is the vertical expansion of jobs. It increases the degree to which a worker controls the planning, execution, and evaluation of his own work. This slide is based on the job characteristics model. It suggests the types of changes in jobs that are most likely to improve their motivating potential. Combine tasks. Combining fractionalized tasks into a new work module increases skill variety and task identity. Create natural work units. Tasks that form an identifiable, meaningful whole encourage employees to take “ownership” of the work and view their work as meaningful and important. Establish client relationships. Direct contact between workers and customers increases skill variety, autonomy, and feedback. Expand jobs vertically. Empowering employees to make decisions formerly reserved for management increases autonomy by narrowing the gap between “doing” and “controlling” the job. Open feedback channels. Systematic feedback informs workers about on-the-job performance: whether they are improving, maintaining, or losing ground. Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 14

16 Een nieuwe kijk op banen
De baan zelf is aan het verdwijnen Part-time en tijdelijk werk Minder zekerheid en voorspelbaarheid Meer fexibiliteit en autonomie The whole notion of jobs may become obsolete. Before 1800, very few people had a job. Instead, they worked at home--no regular hours, job descriptions, bosses, or benefits. The Industrial Revolution created what we have come to think of as jobs. But the conditions that created “the job” are disappearing. They are being replaced by customization, information workers, and intense global competition; therefore, the job itself is disappearing. In a fast-moving economy, jobs are a rigid solution to an elastic problem. Now there are part-time jobs and temporary work situations, as organizations are changing from a structure built out of jobs into a field of work needing to be done. These organizations will be made up of contingent employees who join project teams that were created to complete specific tasks. These workers will have little of the security and predictability that their grandfathers had. Instead, they will have flexibility and autonomy. So they will be able to put together their own place-time combinations according to their diverse work, family, lifestyle, and financial needs. While labor unions and others with a vested interest in the status quo will fight to protect traditional jobs, workplace pressures will encourage employers to move toward a jobless work environment. In such an environment, workers will be assigned to a project when they are hired. As the project changes, their responsibilities and tasks will also change. At any given time, most will be working on multiple projects, under several team leaders, keeping different schedules, working in various places, and performing several different tasks. Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 14

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