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Verandering en ontwikkeling binnen de organisatie

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Presentatie over: "Verandering en ontwikkeling binnen de organisatie"— Transcript van de presentatie:

1 Verandering en ontwikkeling binnen de organisatie
Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 17

2 Leerdoelen Krachten te beschrijven die aanzetten tot verandering
Geplande veranderingen te definiëren Lewins veranderingsmodel in drie fasen samen te vatten Bronnen van weerstand tegen verandering te verklaren Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 17

3 Leerdoelen Technieken te noemen om verzet tegen verandering te overwinnen Een definitie te geven van organisatieontwikkeling (OO) Symptomen van werkstress te identificeren Bronnen van innovatie samen te vatten Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 17

4 Karakter personeels- bestand Concurrentie Krachten die aanzetten tot
verandering Technologie Maat- schappelijke trends Many forces are diving change in the contemporary workplace. The following is a discussion of six of them. The nature of the workforce is changing in the following ways: more cultural diversity, an increase in professionals, and many new entrants who lack basic skills. Human resource practices are changing in order to attract and keep this new workforce, and training costs are rising in order to upgrade math, reading, computer, and other skills of employees. Technology is changing jobs and organizations in the following ways: more computers and automation, TQM programs, and reengineering. Organizational structures are flattening and the span-of-control of many managers is widening. Many jobs are being reshaped as narrow, routine jobs are being replaced by those which require a team effort and multi-tasking. That we live in an “age of discontinuity” is witnessed by the following economic shocks that have imposed changes on organizations: the Asian real estate collapse, fluctuations in interest rates, and foreign currency fluctuations. Competition is changing in many ways: more global competitors, increased consolidations and mergers, and the growth of Internet commerce. Successful organizations will be able to change in response to the competition by relying on short production runs, short product cycles, and an ongoing stream of new products. Doing so will demand a flexible, responsive workforce. The social trends of the 1970s and 1980s suggest changes for the 1990s that organizations will have to adjust for: such as, young people delaying marriage, a negative attitude toward those who smoke, and the popularity of sport utility vehicles. Business schools have been preaching a global perspective since the early 1980s, but no one could have imagined how world politics would change in recent years: for instance, the U.S. embargo of Lybia, the collapse of the Soviet Union, and Black rule in South Africa. In response to such events, almost all major American businesses have had to make sweeping changes in order to survive. Economische crises Wereld- politiek Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 17

5 Geplande veranderingen leiden en begeleiden
Acceptatie in de organisatie Veranderen van werknemergedrag What are the goals of planned change? First, it seeks to improve the ability of the organization to adapt to changes in its environment. Second, it seeks to change employee behavior. If an organization is to survive, it must respond to changes in its environment. Efforts to introduce work teams, decentralized decision making, and new organizational cultures are examples of planned changes which are made to adapt to changes in the environment. Since the success or failure of an organization is linked to the things that its employees either do or fail to do, planned change must also address the behavior of individuals and groups within the organization. Change agents are responsible for managing change activities. They can be managers or non-managers, employees or outside consultants. For major changes, outside consultants are often brought in to provide an objective perspective. Outsiders, however, are at a disadvantage because they usually do not fully understand the organization’s culture, history, operating procedures, and personnel. In addition, they may initiate overly drastic changes, since they do not have to live with the repercussions. In contrast, inside change agents may be more thoughtful or cautious because they do have to live with the effects of the changes they implement. Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 17

6 Het scenario `kalme zee'
Het veranderingsproces volgens Lewin Ontdooien Until recently, the “calm waters” simile dominated the thinking of managers and academics. It is best illustrated by Kurt Lewin’s three-step description of the change process. Lewin asserts that successful change requires unfreezing the status quo, changing to a new state, then refreezing the new change to make it permanent. Moving from the status quo (equilibrium) can be achieved in three ways: 1. The driving forces, which direct behavior away from the status quo, can be increased. 2. The restraining forces, which hinder movement away from the status quo, can be increased. 3. The two approaches can be combined. Once unfreezing has been accomplished, the change can be implemented. But merely introducing change does not ensure that it will take hold. The new situation must be refrozen so it can be sustained over time. Unless this is done, employees will revert to the previous state of equilibrium. The objective, then, of refreezing is to stabilize the new situation by balancing the driving and restraining forces. Veranderen Opnieuw bevriezen Het scenario `kalme zee' Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 17

7 Het scenario `stroomversnellingen'
Gebrek aan stabiliteit Het scenario `stroomversnellingen' voorspelbaar- heid Virtuele chaos Constante veranderingen The “white-water rapids” simile is consistent with uncertain environments and the dynamics associated with moving from an industrial society to a world dominated by information and ideas. Stability and predictability do not exist in such situations. Nor are disruptions to the status quo occasional and temporary, with “calm waters” following after. Many of today’s managers never get out of the rapids. They face constant change, bordering on chaos. They are playing a game they have never played before, governed by rules that are created as the game progresses. While not every manager faces chaotic change, the number of those who do not is dwindling rapidly. Few organizations can treat change as an occasional disturbance in an otherwise peaceful world. Too much is changing too fast for any organization or its managers to be complacent. As Tom Peters notes, the old saying “If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it” no longer applies. In its place, he suggests: “If it ain’t broke, you just haven’t looked hard enough. Fix it anyway.” Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 17

8 Verzet tegen verandering
Individueel verzet Gewoonte Economische factoren Veiligheid Organizations and their members resist change. In a sense, their resistance can be positive. It provides a degree of stability and predictability, and it can be a source of functional conflict. But, resistance also hinders progress and adaptation. Often, organizations that have experienced lengthy periods of success are particularly resistant to change. Organizational resistance to change can take several forms: overt, implicit, immediate, or deferred. The following are five reasons why individuals may resist change: • Habit. To cope with the complexities of day-to-day living, we rely on habits or programmed responses. When confronted with changes, this tendency to respond in habitual ways hinders change. • Security. People with a high need for security resist change because it threatens them. • Economic Factors. Another source of individual resistance is fear that changes will lower income. • Fear of the Unknown. Changes substitute ambiguity and uncertainty for the stable and familiar. • Selective Information Processing. Individuals shape their world through their perceptions. Once they have created this world, it is resistant to change. So, individuals selectively process information in order to maintain their perceptions. Angst voor het onbekende Selectieve informatie- verwerking Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 17

9 Verzet tegen verandering
Verzet van organisaties Structuurinertie Beperkt terrein van verandering Groepsinertie Six sources of resistance have been identified. • Structural Inertia. Organizations have built-in stability mechanisms: for instance, the selection process, training, socialization, job descriptions, rules, and procedures. When an organization faces change, structural inertia acts as a counterbalance to sustain stability. • Limited Focus of Change. Because organizations consist of interdependent subsystems, one cannot be changed without affecting the others. So, the larger system nullifies limited subsystem changes. • Group Inertia. Even if individuals want to change, group norms can constrain them. • Threat to Expertise. The expertise of specialized groups may be threatened by organizational change. • Threat to Established Power Relationships. Any redistribution of decision-making authority can threaten long-established power relationships within the organization. • Threat to Established Resource Allocations. Those that benefit the most from the current allocation of resources are often the most threatened by changes that may affect future allocations. Bedreiging van de huidige middelentoewijzing Bedreiging van gevestigde machtsrelaties Bedreiging van de expertise Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 17

10 Verzet tegen verandering overwinnen
Informatie en communicatie Inspraak Onderhandelen Begeleiding en ondersteuning Dwang Manipulatie en schijninspraak Verzet tegen verandering overwinnen Six tactics can be used by change agents to deal with resistance. 1. Education and communication can help employees to see the logic of change. 2. Participation encourages individuals to support changes that they decided upon. 3. Facilitation and support can be used to reduce resistance. 4. Negotiation means exchanging something of value for lessening resistance. 5. Manipulation involves covert influence attempts; cooptation uses participation and manipulation. 6. Coercion is the application of direct threats or force on the resisters. Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 17

11 Verandering leiden door organisatieontwikkeling
Werkteam Veranderingsinspanning te beschouwen als een voortdurend proces Inspraak en samenwerking Culturele veranderingen Organizational development (OD) refers to planned, systematic change. OD encompasses a collection of change techniques or interventions that can be taken to improve the effectiveness of an organization or the well-being of its employees. OD is built on humanistic, democratic values. In addition, it can be distinguished from more traditional change approaches in the following ways: 1. An emphasis on the work team as the key unit for learning more effective modes of organizational behavior. 2. An emphasis on collaborative management. 3. An emphasis on participation. 4. An emphasis on changing the organization’s culture. 5. The use of behavioral scientists as change agents. 6. A view of the change effort as an ongoing process. Het veranderen van de organisatiecultuur Gedragswetenschappers als change agents Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 17

12 De organisatiecultuur
Structuur- reorganisatie Structuuringrepen Nieuwe beloningssystemen The structural configuration that was once appropriate may have become a competitive disadvantage; therefore, structural reorganization may be needed. Recent trends indicate that structures are becoming flatter, more decentralized, and more organic--all of which are consistent with OD values. Because major changes are disruptive and threatening to the people who will be affected by them, OD change agents promote the active participation of employees in the reorganization process. Change agents often focus on the organization’s reward system. In the past, workers were paid by the hour rather than by output and received automatic raises that had little direct relationship to productivity. In recent years, pay-for-performance programs have become popular. While individual-based bonus plans are common, OD change agents often favor plans that emphasize group and organizational performance. Changing organizational culture is a long-term process. Many companies have learned that the status-quo can create serious impediments to responding to a changing business environment. Organizational cultures must become more flexible, responsive, and focused on customer needs, service, and quality. To do so, many companies are reorganizing by replacing or reassigning key people; changing reward systems; creating new stories, myths, or rituals; and changing the way employees are hired, trained, and retained. De organisatiecultuur veranderen Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 17

13 Taak-technologie-ingrepen
Herontwerp van functies Sociotechnische systemen Kwaliteit van het arbeidsleven Task-technology interventions emphasize changing either the actual jobs that people do or the technological processes and tools they use to do those jobs. Sometimes, they emphasize both. Job redesign interventions include job rotation, enlargement, enrichment, and autonomous work teams. Job redesign is similar to structural reorganization. But instead of focusing the change effort at the organizational level, the focus is at the job level. As a result, it can be employed by supervisors as well as senior managers. Successful job redesign increases the skill variety, task identity, significance, autonomy, and feedback of jobs. Proponents of a sociotechnical systems approach to change argue that for work design to succeed, it must jointly optimize social and technological demands. Technology constrains the social system by shaping the behaviors required to operate it; but, job designers cannot ignore the personalities and attitudes of workers, their interaction patterns, or their relationships with supervisors. So the best way to use sociotechnical systems as a guide when redesigning jobs is to conceptualize work design as organizing groups of workers rather than individuals. Quality of Life (QWL) is an umbrella concept that encompasses specific interventions that are intended to humanize the workplace. QWL can be divided into eight specific categories: 1. Adequate and fair compensation. 2. A safe and healthy workplace. 3. Jobs that develop human capacities. 4. A chance for personal growth and security. 5. An environment of personal identity, freedom from prejudice, and a chance for growth. 6. Rights of personal privacy, dissent, and due process. 7. A work role that minimizes infringement on personal time. 8. Socially responsible organizational actions. Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 17

14 Organisatieontwikkeling gericht op de verandering van de houding en het gedrag van organisatieleden
Sensitivity training Enquêtefeedback Procesadvies Teambuilding Intergroepontwikkeling Sensitivity Training. This method uses unstructured group interaction to change behavior. Members meet in an “open” environment to discuss their interactive processes and themselves. The discussion is loosely directed by a behavioral scientist. The group is process oriented, and individuals learn by observing and participating rather than being told. Survey Feedback. Management can use the survey feedback approach to assess the attitudes of organizational members in order to identify and address the discrepancies among their perceptions. Process Consultation. The purpose of process consultation is for an outside consultant to help a manager to perceive, understand, and act on process events in the workplace, such as work flow, informal relationships, and formal communication channels. Team Building. The following team building activities promote trust and openness between team members: goal setting, interpersonal development, role analysis, and team process analysis. Intergroup Development. This technique can change attitudes, stereotypes, and perceptions that groups have of each other. One method emphasizes problem solving. Once problems have been identified, team members can move to the integration phase of working together to develop solutions to improve intergroup relations. Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 17

15 Stress verminderen prestatie- doelstellingen tijd- management-
programma lichamelijke activiteiten herontwerp van functies communicatie Stress is not necessarily bad. In fact, it can help one to achieve superior performance in a critical situation. But excess or prolonged stress can manifest itself in physiological, psychological, and behavioral problems. Today’s workers take on larger work loads, work longer hours, have fewer resources, confront ambiguity daily, and have less job security. These factors contribute to employee stress. Not all sources of stress can be controlled by management: for instance, high-strung employees or workers with off-the-job pressures. However, certain jobs are more stressful than others, and individuals vary in their response to stress situations. Therefore, selection and placement decisions must consider these factors. The use of goals can reduce employee frustration, job uncertainty, and stress. Poor use of time can cause stress, so management should provide time-management training. Redesigning jobs to give employees more responsibility, more meaningful work, and increased feedback can reduce stress. Job stress often occurs because employees feel uncertain about goals, expectations, and how they will be evaluated. So, management should increase employee involvement in decision making. Helping employees expand their social support networks can reduce tension. Increasing formal organizational communication with employees lessens ambiguity and reduces stress. Physical activity programs supported by the organization focus on the employee’s total physical and mental condition. betrokkenheid van werknemers personeels- counselors Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 17

16 Wat is een lerende organisatie?
Definitie Voordelen Kenmerken A learning organization is one that has developed the continuous capacity to adapt and change. Most organizations engage in single-loop learning: that is, detecting and correcting errors by using past routines and present policies. In contrast, learning organizations use double-loop learning: that is, detecting errors and correcting them in ways that modify the organization’s objectives, policies, and standard routines. Proponents believe that the learning organization can remedy the following three basic problems in traditional organizations. Fragmentation is based on specialization and creates “walls” that separate different functions into independent and often warring fiefdoms. Stressing competition can hinder collaboration. Reactiveness misdirects management’s attention to solving problems rather than generating new ideas. The following are characteristics of a learning organization: 1. Everyone agrees to a shared vision. 2. People discard old ways of thinking and standard routines. 3. Members see that organizational processes and activities are interrelated. 4. People communicate openly across horizontal and vertical boundaries. 5. Employees sublimate departmental/personal interests for the shared vision. The learning organization is a paradigm built on contemporary management concepts. No company has successfully achieved all the characteristics. Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 17

17 Wat kunnen managers doen om lerende organisaties te maken van hun bedrijf?
Formuleer een strategie Herontwerp de structuur van de organisatie Vorm de cultuur van de organisatie om What can managers do to make their firms learning organizations? They can establish a strategy by committing to change, innovation, and continuous improvement. Managers can also redesign the organization’s structure: for instance, flattening hierarchies, combining departments, and increasing the use of cross-functional teams. Moreover, management can reshape the organization’s culture through what they say and do. Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 17


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