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Werkteams Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 8.

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Presentatie over: "Werkteams Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 8."— Transcript van de presentatie:

1 Werkteams Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 8

2 Leerdoelen De toenemende populariteit van teams in organisaties te verklaren De verschillen tussen teams en groepen aan te geven Vier soorten teams te onderscheiden Het verband tussen groepsconcepten en uitstekend presterende teams aan te tonen Uit te leggen hoe organisaties teamspelers kunnen creëren Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 8

3 Waarom zijn teams zo populair geworden?
Taken vereisen meerdere vaardigheden, oordeelkundigheid en ervaring Talenten van werknemers worden beter benut Teams zijn flexibeler, spelen alerter in op veranderende gebeurtenissen Motivationele eigenschappen Evidence suggests that teams outperform individuals on tasks which require multiple skills, judgment, and experience. As organizations have restructured to compete more effectively and efficiently, teams have proven to be a way to utilize employee talents. Management has also found that teams are more flexible and responsive than departments or other forms of permanent groupings to changing events. Teams can quickly form, deploy, refocus, or disband. Teams also have motivational properties. They facilitate participation in operating decisions. Therefore, teams democratize organizations and boost motivation. Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 8

4 Vergelijking van werkgroepen en werkteams
Informatieuitwisseling Neutraal (soms negatief) Individueel Willekeurig en wisselend Doel Synergie Verantwoording Vaardigheden Collectieve prestatie Positief Individueel en gezamenlijk Aanvullend A group is two or more interdependent individuals who interact to achieve particular objectives. A work group interacts primarily to share information and make decisions that will help group members to perform their on-the-job responsibilities. A work team generates positive synergy through coordinated effort. The figure above highlights the differences between work groups and work teams. In an effort to obtain synergy that can boost performance, many organizations have recently restructured work processes around teams. The use of teams creates the potential for an organization to generate greater outputs with no increase in inputs. But there is nothing “magical” in the creation of teams that assures the achievement of positive synergy. And merely calling a group a team does not automatically increase its performance. Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 8

5 Vier soorten teams Probleemoplossend Zelfsturend Virtueel
Problem-Solving Teams are rarely given authority to implement their suggestions, but these members share ideas and suggest improvements to work processes and methods. Self-Managed Work Teams are autonomous, select their own members, and implement and take responsibility for their suggestions. These teams consist of ten to fifteen people who assume the responsibilities of their former supervisors: such as, control over the pace of work, organization of breaks, determination of work assignments, choice of inspection procedures, and choosing and evaluating members. Virtual teams use computer technology to enable physically dispersed team members to achieve a common goal. Virtual teams do all the things that other teams do. Three primary factors differentiate virtual teams from face-to-face teams: (1) the absence of paraverbal and nonverbal cue, (2) limited social context, and (3) the ability to overcome time and space constraints. On cross-functional teams, equally ranked employees from different functional areas work together to accomplish a task. Task forces and committees composed of members from across departmental lines are examples of cross-functional teams. Cross-functional teams expedite the following: exchanging ideas from diverse areas within or between organizations, developing new ideas and solving problems, and coordinating complex projects. Virtueel Cross-functioneel Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 8

6 Goed presterende teams opzetten met behulp van groepsbegrippen
Omvang van werkteams Capaciteiten van de leden Often, the best work teams are small because large numbers of people usually cannot develop the cohesiveness, commitment, and mutual accountability requisite for high performance. The members of effective teams possess three different types of skills: technical expertise, problem-solving and decision-making skills, and interpersonal skills. While no team can maximize performance without these three elements, the right mix is crucial. Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 8

7 diversiteit bevorderen
Rollen toewijzen en diversiteit bevorderen Creator- Innovators Verkenner- Promotor Inschatter- Ontwikkelaar Planner- Organisator Afronder- Producent Controleur- Inspecteur High-performing teams properly match people to various roles. Research has identified nine potential team roles that people prefer to play. Creator-innovators are imaginative and good at initiating ideas or concepts. Explorer-promoters like to take new ideas and “champion” their cause. Assessor-developers have strong analytical skills. Thruster-organizers like to set up operating procedures to turn ideas into reality and to get things done. Concluder-producers insist that deadlines are met and that all commitments are kept. Controller-inspectors have a high concern for establishing and enforcing rules and regulations. Upholder-maintainers hold strong convictions about the way things should be done. Reporter-advisers are good listeners who don’t tend to press their point of view on others. Linkers try to understand all views in order to coordinate and integrate the efforts of the team. Verdediger- Handhaver Rapporteur- Adviseur Begeleider Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 8

8 Succesvolle Teams Inzet voor een gezamenlijk doel Concrete doelen
Leiderschap en structuur Lijntrekken en verantwoording Effective teams have a common, meaningful purpose that provides members with direction, momentum, and commitment. Successful teams translate their common purpose into specific, measurable, realistic performance goals. High-performance teams need leadership and structure to provide focus and direction. Team members must agree on work assignments. In addition, they must determine how schedules will be set, skills that need to be developed, how conflicts will be resolved, and how decisions will be made. These guidelines can be provided by directly by management or by the team members themselves. Some persons will coast on the group’s effort because their individual contributions cannot be identified. Effective teams minimize social loafing by demanding accountability to the team’s purpose, goals, and approach, at both the team and individual levels. To promote individual and joint accountability from team members, traditional appraisal and reward systems must be modified. Geschikte systemen voor prestatiebeoordeling en beloning Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 8

9 Van werknemer naar teamspeler
Selectie Training Beloningen It is challenging to introduce teams into a work population that is made up of workers born and raised in a highly individualistic society. Effective team members communicate openly and honestly, confront differences and resolve conflicts, and sublimate personal goals for the good of the team. Because an employee’s success is no longer determined by individual performance, some employees will resist working on teams. So, the challenge of creating team players will be greatest where (1) the national culture is highly individualistic and (2) teams are being introduced into an environment that has valued individual achievement in the past. While some workers will not be trainable, the following summarizes several methods for turning individuals into team players. • Selection. Ensure that individuals can fulfill their team roles as well as satisfy the technical requirements of the job. • Training. Even independent workers can be trained to become team players by helping them to improve their problem-solving, communication, negotiation, conflict management, and coaching skills. • Rewards. The reward system must encourage cooperation rather than competition. Promotions, raises, and other forms of recognition should be awarded for collaboration and team work. And individual excellence should be balanced with selfless contributions to the team. Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 8

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