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Leiderschap en vertrouwen

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1 Leiderschap en vertrouwen
Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 10

2 Leerdoelen De conclusies van theorieën over karaktertrekken van leiders samen te vatten De beperkingen van de theorieën over leidersgedrag aan te geven Het contingentiemodel van Fiedler te beschrijven De pad-doeltheorie samen te vatten De contingentievariabelen in het model van leidersparticipatie op te noemen Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 10

3 Leerdoelen Verschillen in leiderschapsstijl te noemen van mannen en vrouwen Onderscheid te maken tussen transformationeel en transactioneel leiderschap De vaardigheden van visionaire leiders aan te geven De vier rollen van goede teamleiders te beschrijven Samen te vatten hoe leiders vertrouwen kunnen opbouwen Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 10

4 Wat is leiderschap? Een definitie van leiderschap
Leiders en leiderschap Formele en informele leiders Leiders en managers Leadership is an influence process; therefore, leaders are people who, by their actions, encourage a group of people to move toward a common or shared goal. A leader is an individual; leadership is the function that the individual performs. Individuals within an organization who have authority are often referred to as leaders, regardless of how they act in their jobs. But, just because someone is supposed to be a formal leader in an organization, he or she may or may not exercise leadership. In fact, informal or emergent leaders can exhibit leadership even though they do not hold formal leadership positions. Harvard’s John Kotter compares management and leadership. Management, he says, is about dealing with complexity: drawing up formal plans, designing organizational structures, and monitoring outcomes. Leadership, in contrast, is about coping with change. Leaders establish direction by developing a vision; then they communicate this vision to people and inspire them to overcome obstacles. While both management and leadership promote organizational effectiveness, most companies are over-managed and under-led. Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 10

5 Theorieën over karaktereigenschappen Karaktertrekken van een leider
gedrevenheid en ambitie de wens anderen leiding te geven en te beïnvloeden oprechtheid en integriteit zelfvertrouwen intelligentie grondige kennis op hun verantwoordelijk- heidsgebied. The search for characteristics that would differentiate leaders from nonleaders occupied the early psychologists who studied leadership. But research efforts at isolating these traits were not successful. However, attempts to identify traits consistently associated with leadership have been more successful. The following are six traits on which leaders differ from nonleaders: 1. Drive and ambition 2. Desire to lead and influence others 3. Honesty and integrity 4. Self-confidence 5. Intelligence 6. In-depth technical knowledge related to their responsibilities Using traits alone to identify leaders will not be sufficient, however, because this method ignores situational factors. While possession of the appropriate traits makes it more likely that an individual will be an effective leader, he or she still has to take the right actions. And what is right in one situation may not be right in another. Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 10

6 Theorieën over gedrag Structuur-initiatie Ohio State Studies
Consideratie The most comprehensive of the behavioral theories resulted from research that began at Ohio State in These researchers sought to identify independent dimensions of leader behavior and discovered that two categories (initiating structure and consideration) accounted for most of the behavior of leaders. Initiating structure includes behavior that attempts to organize work, goals, and work relationships. The leader who is high in initiating structure could be described in terms such as “assigns group members to particular tasks,” or “emphasizes the meeting of deadlines.” Consideration includes concern for the comfort, status, satisfaction, and well-being of subordinates. A leader who is high in consideration helps subordinates with personal problems, is friendly and approachable, and treats all subordinates as equals. Research at the University of Michigan intended to identify characteristics of leaders that appeared to relate to measures of performance effectiveness. Two dimensions of leadership behavior were identified. Employee-oriented leaders emphasized personal relationships; they cared about the needs of their subordinates and accepted individual differences among them. Production-oriented leaders emphasized the technical or task aspects of the job. Their main concern was accomplishing their group’s tasks, and the group members were a means to that end. Werknemersgericht Onderzoek van de Universiteit van Michigan Productiegericht Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 10

7 De leiderschapsmatrix
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 (1,9) (9,9) Aandacht voor mensen (5,5) Numerous studies converge around two dimensions. The task dimension refers to stressing the accomplishment of group goals, defining and structuring work assignments, and emphasizing deadlines. The people dimension includes developing good interpersonal relationships, being approachable, and being concerned with workers’ personal problems. The managerial grid depicts a manager’s “concern for people” and “concern for production” on separate axes. The grid has nine possible positions along each axis, creating eighty-one positions in which a leader’s style may fall. Proponents of this two-dimensional view focus on the extremes of the grid and claim that effective leaders use a (9,9) management style: that is, work accomplished from committed people and interdependence through a “common style” in organization purpose leads to relationships of trust and respect. The extreme styles are as follows: (1,9) Management. Thoughtful attention to needs of people for satisfying relationship leads to a comfortable, friendly atmosphere and work tempo. (9,1) Management. Efficiency in operations results from arranging conditions of work in such a way that human elements interfere to a minimum degree. (1,1) Management. Exertion of minimum effort to get required work done is appropriate to sustain organization membership. (5,5) Management. Adequate organization performance is possible through balancing the necessity to get out work with maintaining morale of people at at satisfactory level. Recent research has revealed a third effective leadership style: development-oriented behavior characterized by experimentation, innovative problem solving, and encouraging change. Because evidence is mixed on the relationship between leadership style and group effectiveness, we cannot generalize across a variety of workers, jobs, organizational cultures, and countries. But, research suggests that leaders who exhibit development-oriented behavior have satisfied subordinates who perceive them to be competent and have the flexibility to respond to change. However, follower characteristics and contextual factors must be added to the equation if leadership styles are to be meaningful. (1,1) (9,1) Aandacht voor productie Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 10

8 Het model van Fiedler Hoog Laag Prestatie Sfeergericht Taakgericht
Gunstig Middelmatig Ongunstig Fiedler asserts that if the leader’s style matches the situation, he or she will be effective. His model predicts that low-LPC, task-motivated leaders will be effective in high and low situational control. High-LPC, relationship-motivated leaders will be effective in moderate situational control. The Fiedler model has several practical implications for managers: Leaders must understand their style and the situation. Leaders should focus on changing the situation to match their style. A good relationship with followers can compensate for a lack of power. Leaders can compensate for task ambiguity through training and experience. Categorie Leider- groepslid relaties Taakstructuur Positiemacht I Goed Hoog Sterk II Zwak III Laag IV V Slecht VI VII Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 10

9 De pad-doel theorie Omgevingsfactoren Leidersgedrag Uitkomsten
According to the path-goal model of leadership, the leader assists his or her followers to set and attain goals that are compatible with organizational objectives. The path-goal proposes two classes of situational variables: those in the environment that are outside a subordinate’s control and those that are part of a subordinate’s personality. Environmental factors determine the type of leader behavior required to maximize subordinate outcomes; personal characteristics of the subordinate determine how the environment and leader behavior are interpreted. The path-goal model illustrates that an employee’s performance and satisfaction will improve if the leader compensates for elements that are lacking in either the environment or the employee. The following are illustrations of this theory: Task-oriented leadership leads to greater employee satisfaction when tasks are ambiguous than when tasks are highly structured. People-oriented leadership results in high performance and satisfaction when workers are performing structured tasks. Task-oriented leadership may be seem redundant to experienced workers. People-oriented behavior works better than task-oriented behavior if formal authority relationships are clear and structured. Task-oriented leadership can counterbalance conflict within a workgroup. Directive styles work best when workers have an external locus of control. Factoren van ondergeschikten Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 10

10 Het leider-participatiemodel
Participatie in besluitvorming door medewerkers Leider neemt beslissingen 1 2 3 4 5 A comprehensive framework related to leader behavior and participation in decision making is the leader-participation model (Vroom & Yetton, 1973). This model identifies five leadership behaviors: 1. The leader makes the decision alone. 2. The leader asks for information from group members but makes the decision alone. Group members may or may not be informed about the decision. 3. The leader shares the situation with each group member and asks for information and evaluation. Members do not meet as a group, and the leader alone makes the decision. 4. The leader and group members discuss the situation, but the leader makes the decision. 5. The leader and group members discuss the situation, and the group makes the decision. This model originally used seven contingencies (the relevance of which could be identified by making a series of “yes” or “no” choices) to determine the best leadership style from among the five alternatives. Consensusbesluit Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 10

11 Contingentievariabelen in het herzien leider-participatiemodel
1. Hoe belangrijk is het besluit. 2. Hoe belangrijk is inzet werknemers voor beslissing. 3. Beschikt de leider over voldoende informatie om een goede beslissing te nemen. 4. Hoe gestructureerd is het probleem. 5. Zullen werknemers zich inzetten voor een autocratisch besluit. 6. Staan werknemers achter de organisatiedoelen. 7. Zullen er conflicten ontstaan onder werknemers over alternatieve oplossingen. 8. Beschikken werknemers over voldoende informatie om een goede beslissing te nemen. 9. Staat de leider onder tijdsdruk die de betrokkenheid van werknemers beperkt. 10. Zijn kosten om werknemers bijeen te brengen die zich fysiek op grote afstand bevinden, gerechtvaardigd. 11. Hoe belangrijk is het voor de leider om in zo min mogelijk tijd een besluit te nemen. 12. Hoe belangrijk is participatie als middel om beslisvaardigheden van werknemers te ontwikkelen. More recent work by Vroom and Jago has revised the Leader-Participation Model. The new model retains the same five alternative leadership styles which range from the leader making the decision alone to sharing the problem with the group and obtaining a consensus decision. But it expands contingency variables to twelve (see the slide above). Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 10

12 Geslacht en leiderschap
Luisteren Motiveren Coachen The evidence suggests two conclusions. First, the similarities between men and women outweigh the differences. Second, women prefer a more democratic leadership style, while men are more directive. The similarities should not be surprising. People with leadership traits (intelligence, confidence, and sociability) will be encouraged to pursue leadership careers, regardless of gender. In addition, organizations recruit and promote persons who project leadership attributes; so, organizational leaders will be more alike than different. However, women prefer to lead through inclusion and rely on their charisma, expertise, interpersonal skills, and contacts. Men, on the other hand, are more likely to use a formal, directive command-and-control style. In today’s organizations, flexibility, teamwork, trust, and information sharing are replacing rigid structures, competitive individualism, control, and secrecy. The best managers listen, motivate, and provide support to their people. And many women seem to do those things better than men. Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 10

13 Charismatisch leiderschap
Zelfvertrouwen Visie Sterke overtuigingen in die visie Onconventioneel gedrag Imago als `change agent' Conger and Kanguno at McGill University analyzed charismatic leadership qualities. They propose that a charismatic leader has an idealized goal to achieve and a strong personal commitment to the goal. Moreover, this leader is unconventional, self-assured, assertive, an agent of radical change rather than a guardian of the status quo. Charismatic leaders use a four-step process to influence followers: (1) articulates an appealing vision to the followers, (2) sets high performance expectations and asserts that followers can reach them, (3) conveys a new set of values and sets an example for followers to imitate, and (4) exhibits courage and conviction through self-sacrifice. Charismatic leaders often emerge during times of crisis or massive change in business, politics, religion, or war. However, once the crisis is over, a charismatic leader may become a liability because overwhelming self-confidence and unconventional behavior can interfere with day-to-day business operations. Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 10

14 Karakteristieken van teamleiders
Verbindings- schakel Trouble- shooters The team-leadership role differs from the traditional leadership role performed by first-line supervisors. The following section considers the challenge of being a team leader, reviews the new roles that team leaders adopt, and offers tips on how team leaders can perform effectively. The following skills are critical to effective team leadership: trusting others, sharing information, giving up authority, and knowing when to intervene. The team leader’s job involves two priorities: managing the team’s external boundary and facilitating the team process. These priorities require four specific roles. First, team leaders are liaisons with external constituencies: management, other internal teams, customers, and suppliers. Second, team leaders are trouble-shooters. They ask penetrating questions, help the team overcome obstacles, and obtain resources as needed. Third, they are conflict managers who help process conflict as needed. Fourth, they are coaches who clarify expectations and roles, and do what it takes to help team members improve their on-the-job performance. Effective team leaders have cultivated the following skills: coaching, conflict resolution, listening, feedback, and verbal persuasion. Furthermore, they have accepted that they do not have the level of technical skills held by team members. So, they concentrate on their job: empowering team members, getting them to focus on goals, providing motivation, and minimizing barriers. Conflict- hanteerders Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 10

15 Is leiderschap altijd relevant?
kenmerken van werknemers, zoals ervaring, beroepsopleiding of behoefte aan onafhankelijkheid mensen met routinetaken of werkzaamheden die intrinsieke bevrediging geven Is leiderschap altijd relevant? Certain individual, job, and organizational variables can substitute for formal leaders or neutralize the leader’s influence. Neutralizers negate the leader’s behavior and obviate its influence on a subordinate’s outcomes. Substitutes replace the leader’s behavior and make it redundant. Even though formal leaders can be replaced, leadership cannot. So, leadership will happen, either through informal leaders or organizational channels. werkgroepen met een goede cohesie expliciet geformaliseerde doelen, strakke regels en procedures Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 10

16 Wat is vertrouwen? Integriteit Competentie Consequentheid Loyaliteit
Openheid Trust is a positive expectation that another will not act opportunistically. The phrase positive expectation assumes knowledge and familiarity about the other party. Trust, therefore, is a history-dependent process based on relevant but limited samples of evidence. Trust takes time to form, building incrementally and accumulating. The term opportunistically refers to risk and vulnerability in any trusting relationship. Trust is not actually taking risks; rather, it is the willingness to do so. An absence of trust does not imply distrust; so you can have neutral situations where there is an absence of trust but no expectations of opportunistic behavior. The key dimensions of trust are as follows: 1. Integrity refers to honesty and truthfulness. This dimension seems to be the most critical when someone assesses the trustworthiness of another. 2. Competence encompasses an individual’s technical and interpersonal skills and knowledge. 3. Consistency relates to an individual’s reliability, predictability, and judgment in handling situations. 4. Loyalty is the willingness to protect and save face for another person. 5. Openness is the final dimension of trust. Can you rely on the person to give you the full truth? Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 10

17 Drie soorten vertrouwen
gebaseerd op afschrikking gebaseerd op kennis gebaseerd op identificatie The most fragile relationships are contained in deterrence-based trust. This type of trust is based on fear of reprisal and will only work to the degree that punishment is possible, consequences are clear, and punishment is actually imposed if trust is violated. This type of trust is characterized by protections such as contracts and other legal arrangements. An example is the relationship between a new manager and an employee. The bond that creates this trust lies in the authority held by the boss and the punishment he or she can impose. Most organizational relationships are rooted in knowledge-based trust. So, trust of this kind is based on a history of interaction. It relies on information rather than deterrence. The knowledge of the other party and the predictability of his or her behavior replaces contracts, penalties, and legal arrangements. At this level, trust is not necessarily broken by inconsistent behavior, if that behavior can be adequately explained or understood. The highest level of trust, identification-based trust, is based on an emotional connection between the parties. Trust exists because the parties understand each other’s intentions, wants, and desires. So one party can act as an agent for the other and substitute for that person in interpersonal transactions. Controls are minimal at this level. In the current workplace, most large corporations have broken the bonds of identification-based trust that may have existed with long-term employees. It is likely to have been replaced by knowledge-based trust. Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 10

18 Hoe bouw je vertrouwen op?
Wees open Wees rechtvaardig Toon je gevoelens Vertel de waarheid Wees consequent Kom beloften na Houd geheimen van anderen voor je Toon je competentie Leaders should practice openness by keeping people informed, making decision criteria overtly clear, explaining the rationale for decisions, being candid about problems, and disclosing relevant information. Leaders should be fair by giving credit where it is due, being impartial in performance appraisals, and distributing rewards equitably. Leaders should speak their feelings because doing so will let others know that they are human beings, not automatons. Leaders should tell the truth because honesty is essential to credibility. Leaders should show consistency by knowing their values and beliefs and acting upon them. Leaders should fulfill their promises because trust requires that people believe that you are dependable. Leaders should be discreet. If someone tells a leader something in confidence, then he or she should not betray that confidence. Leaders should demonstrate competence to develop the admiration and respect of others. Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 10

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