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Introductie tot Organisatie Gedrag©Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 1
Leerdoelen Een definitie te geven van de tak van wetenschap die zich bezighoudt met organisatiegedrag (OG) De belangrijkste gedragswetenschappen te noemen die bijdragen tot OG De drie algemene doelen van OG uiteen te zetten Aan te geven bij welke grote uitdagingen en kansen managers OG-begrippen kunnen toepassen ©Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 1
Leerdoelen De hoofdelementen van Total Quality Management (TQM) te schetsen Te bespreken waarom een pluriform personeelsbestand een belangrijke kwestie is geworden voor managers De reacties van managers en organisaties te beschrijven op het probleem van ethische dilemma's van werknemers ©Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 1
Organisatiegedrag (OG)Productiviteit, Arbeidsverzuim en Omzet Arbeids- satisfactie Organizational behavior is the systematic study of the actions and attitudes that people exhibit in organizations. Three behavioral determinants of the performance of employees are productivity, absenteeism, and turnover. All managers are concerned with the quantity and quality of output that each employee generates. But absence and turnover can adversely affect this output. Job satisfaction (an attitude) is important for three reasons. First, there may be a link between satisfaction and productivity. Second, satisfaction appears to be negatively related to absenteeism and turnover. Third, it can be argued that managers have a humanistic responsibility to provide employees with jobs that are challenging, intrinsically rewarding, and satisfying. OB is specifically concerned with work-related behavior which takes place in organizations. An organization is a formal structure of planned coordination involving two or more people who share a common purpose. It is characterized by formal roles that define and shape the behavior of its members. Organisatie ©Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 1
Psychologie Sociologie Het terrein van organisatiegedragSociale Psychologie Anthropologie Organizational behavior (OB) is applied behavioral science and, as a result, is built upon contributions from several behavioral disciplines. Psychology is the science that seeks to measure, explain, and modify human and animal behavior. Psychologists study individual behavior. Those who have contributed to OB are learning theorists, counseling psychologists, and industrial and organizational psychologists. Sociology studies people in relation to their fellow human beings. Sociology’s greatest contribution to OB has been in the areas of group behavior, work teams, organizational culture, communication, power, status, and conflict. Social psychology blends the disciplines of sociology and psychology. This discipline has contributed to OB in several ways: measuring, understanding, and changing attitudes, communication patterns, and decision-making processes. Anthropology is the study of societies to learn about human behavior. Much of our current understanding of organizational culture and differences between national cultures is the result of the work of anthropologists. Political science is the study of behavior of groups and individuals within a political environment. This discipline has contributed to the understanding of how conflict is structured, power is allocated, and how self-interest is promoted. Politicologie ©Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 1
organisatiewetenschapDoelen van de organisatiewetenschap Verklaren, Voorspellen Sturen The goals of OB are to explain, predict, and control human behavior. When we seek answers to why an individual or group did something, we are pursing the explanation objective. It is probably the least important of the three goals because it occurs after the fact. If we are to understand something, however, we must begin by trying to explain it. The goal of prediction focuses on future events to determine what outcomes will follow from a given action. A manager can use this information when making decisions. The most controversial goal is using OB knowledge to control behavior. The idea that one person should attempt to get others to behave in a certain way, while the subjects may not know that their behavior is being manipulated, has been viewed in some circles as unethical and repugnant. While OB offers ways to control the behavior of people, whether those methods should be used is a question of ethics. ©Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 1
Uitdagingen en nieuwe kansen voor OG vanuit het management bezienThe ability to explain, predict, and control organizational behavior is important to managers. The typical employee is older; there are more women and minorities in the workplace; corporate restructuring is cutting the bonds of loyalty; and global competition requires employees to be flexible and to cope with constant change and innovation. The next several slides will present some critical issues that managers must face. Given these issues, organizational behavior can offer some meaningful insight and potential solutions. ©Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 1
Betere kwaliteit en productiviteit wat de organisatie doetVeel aandacht voor de klant Zorg voor continue verbetering Verbetering van de kwaliteit van alles wat de organisatie doet To improve quality and productivity, many companies are implementing Total Quality Management--a philosophy of management driven by the constant attainment of customer satisfaction through the continuous improvement of all organizational processes. Total quality management has implications for OB since it requires employees to rethink what they do and become involved in workplace decision making. The following are the main elements of TQM. Intense focus on the customer includes not only outsiders who buy the services or products of the organization but also internal customers (such as shipping or accounts receivable) who interact with and serve the organization. Concern for continual improvement means “very good is not good enough” and quality can always be improved. Improvement in the quality of everything the organization does applies not only to the final product but also to how the organization handles deliveries, complaints, and public contact, for example. TQM requires accurate measurement of every critical performance variable in the organization’s operation. These variables are compared against standards to identify problems, trace them to their roots, and eradicate them. TQM involves the empowerment of employees and teams as a means of finding and solving problems in the workplace. Nauwkeurige metingen Empowerment van werknemers ©Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 1
Motivatie Vaardigheden in de omgang met mensen verbeteren CommunicatieTeamwork We opened this chapter by explaining how important people skills are to managerial effectiveness. Subsequent chapters of this text will present theories and concepts that can help managers explain and predict the behavior of people at work. The text will also present a variety of ways to motivate people, to communicate more effectively, and to create effective teams. ©Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 1
Pluriformiteit van het PersoneelWorkforce diversity means that organizations are more heterogeneous in terms of race, gender, and ethnicity. But the term encompasses everyone who varies form the “norm.” In addition to women, African Americans, Asian Americans, and Hispanic Americans, it also includes the disabled, gays and lesbians, and the elderly. We used to take a “melting pot” approach to differences in organizations and assumed that those who were different would want to be assimilated. But we now recognize that employees do not want to set aside their cultural values and lifestyle preferences when they come to work. The challenge for organizations is to be more accommodating to the lifestyles, family needs, and work styles of diverse groups of people. Workforce diversity has important implications for management practice. Managers will need to shift their philosophy from treating everyone alike to recognizing and responding to individual differences in ways that will ensure employee retention and productivity. At the same time, they must guard against discrimination. When managed well, diversity can increase creativity and improve decision making. When managed poorly, diversity can lead to higher turnover, communication problems, and interpersonal conflicts. ©Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 1
Reageren op MondialiseringWerken in het Buitenland Werken met Multiculturele Diversiteit Management is no longer constrained by national borders. The world has become a global village. Therefore, managers must be able to work with people from different cultures. Globalization affects a manager’s people-handling skills in at least two ways. First, managers are more likely to find themselves in foreign assignments. So they will be managing workers who will probably be very different in needs, aspirations, and attitudes from the workers they managed in the United States. Second, even if managers stay at home, they will be working with bosses, peers, and subordinates who were raised in different cultures. To work effectively in such situations, managers will need to understand the cultures with which they must interact and adapt their management styles as needed. ©Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 1
Empowerment van werknemers verantwoordelijkheidManagers geven verantwoor- delijkheden op Werknemers accepteren meer verantwoordelijkheid By empowering the workforce, management is putting employees in charge of what they do. To do so, managers are having to learn how to give up control, and employees are having to learn how to take responsibility for their work and make appropriate decisions. ©Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 1
Omgaan met `Tijdelijkheid'De Aard van Werken Verandert Organisaties Veranderen Managers have always been concerned with change. In the past, managers could introduce major change programs once or twice a decade. Today, change is an ongoing management activity. The concept of continuous improvement, for instance, implies constant change. Management used to be characterized by long periods of stability, interrupted occasionally by short periods of change. Management today would be more accurately described as long periods of ongoing change, interrupted from time to time by short periods of stability. The world that managers and employees face, therefore, is one of permanent “temporariness.” The jobs that workers perform are changing constantly. So workers need to continually update their knowledge and skills. Organizations are also in a state of flux--constantly reorganizing divisions, selling off businesses that are poor performers, downsizing operations, and replacing permanent workers with temporaries. Managers and employees must learn to live with flexibility, spontaneity, and unpredictability. The study of OB can provide important insights into a world of work which is constantly changing. Moreover, OB can offer guidelines for overcoming resistance to change and creating an organizational culture that thrives on change. ©Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 1
Dalende Loyaliteit bij WerknemersMotivatie van Werknemers Wereldwijde Concurrentie Corporate employees used to believe that their employers would reward good work and loyalty with job security, generous benefits, and steady pay raises. In the 1980s, companies began to discard traditional policies on job security, pay, and benefits because of increasing global competition, leveraged buyouts, and hostile takeovers. Companies needed to become “lean and mean” and closed factories, moved operations overseas, eliminated entire levels of management, sold off less-profitable businesses, replaced permanent workers with temps, and substituted pay-for-performance plans for seniority-based programs. These changes have resulted in a sharp decline in worker loyalty. Because employees perceive that their employers are less committed to them, they have responded by being less committed to their companies. An important challenge for managers, therefore, will be motivating workers who are less committed to their employers while maintaining their organization’s global competitiveness. ©Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 1
Verbeteren van Ethisch Gedragadviseurs voor ethische kwesties werknemers beschermen die interne onethische praktijken onthullen schriftelijke gedragscodes seminars, workshops en trainingen In a workplace characterized by cutbacks, intense global competition, and expectations of higher worker productivity, it is not surprising that many employees feel pressured to cut corners, break rules, and engage in other questionable activities. So members of organizations are often faced with ethical dilemmas, in which they must define right and wrong conduct. But ethical behavior is tough to define, especially when employees can find evidence of unethical behavior at all social and organizational levels. Organizations are responding to this problem in a number of ways. 1. Writing and distributing codes of ethics to guide employees through ethical dilemmas. 2. Offering seminars, workshops, and training to improve ethical behaviors. 3. Providing in-house advisers who can provide assistance with ethical issues. 4. Creating protection mechanisms for employees who reveal internal practices that are unethical. ©Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 1
Niveaus van OG-AnalyseNiveau van het Individu de Groep de Organisatie This book uses a building-block or three-level approach to the study of Organizational Behavior. This approach moves from the individual level, to the group level, to the organization system level. Chapters 2 through 6 deal with the individual in the organization. The basics of individual behavior are examined: values, attitudes, perception and learning. The role that personality and emotions play in individual behavior is examined next. Then, motivational issues and individual decision making are reviewed. Chapters 7 through 12 address group behavior by presenting the following topics: a group behavior model, ways to boost the effectiveness of teams, communication issues, group decision making, leadership, trust, power, politics, and conflict. Chapters 13 through 17 discuss how an organization’s structure, work design, and technology affect behavior; the effect that formal systems of appraisal and reward have on people; how an organization’s culture shapes the behavior of its members; and various change and development techniques that managers can use to affect behavior for the organization’s benefit. ©Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 1
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