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Prof. dr. Roy Brouwer Payments for Ecosystem Services.

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Presentatie over: "Prof. dr. Roy Brouwer Payments for Ecosystem Services."— Transcript van de presentatie:

1 Prof. dr. Roy Brouwer Payments for Ecosystem Services

2 2 Presentatie overzicht  Wat?  Waarom?  Hoe?

3 3 Wat? Charles Darwin (On the Origin of Species) Adam Smith (Wealth of Nations) Economists need ecology: Scarcity natural resources increases and thus their economic value Ecologists need economy: Protection of nature in a more populated world requires people/funds Ecosystem Services

4 4 Wat?

5 5 Type of benefitEcosystem service Forest reserve Ecosystem Water supply Forest products Provisioning services Hazard protection Carbon sequestration Regulating services Aesthetic quality Cultural services Recreation Species conservation Tourism Supporting services Source: van Beukering (2010)

6 6 Watergebruiksfuncties en hun economische waarde drinkwater sponswerking wonen werken transport irrigatie koeling proceswater dumpplaats reiniging spiritueel medium recreatie Watersysteem Economische waarde Watergebruiksfuncties Direct gebruikIndirect gebruikNiet-gebruik

7 7 Botanical grassland Ecosystem service price Source: LNV

8 8 Meadow birds Ecosystem service price €60/nest Source: LNV

9 9 Wat?

10 10 Wat? Natural Light use Extensive Intensive Degraded Urban Provisioning services Cultural services (i.e. tourism) Regulating services Cultural services (i.e. spiritual) Sum ecosystem services value Ecosystem service value Source: COPI 2008 Land-use

11 11 Wat? Externe effecten: effecten op ecosysteemdiensten die buiten de markt vallen en waarvoor geen prijzen voorhanden zijn

12 12 Wat?

13 13 Classical situation Significant investment costs in public good Lack of knowledge & information (uncertainty) about the wider environmental and socio-economic benefits Can these investment costs be justified or are they ‘disproportionate’ compared to the expected benefits? Public survey methods to elicit preferences directly (stated) and/or indirectly (revealed) as one way to inform policy and decision-making

14 14 Waarom? Traditional functions ecosystem services valuation -Raising awareness: signal function -Environmental liability: polluter pays -Money speaks louder than words -Internalize externalities: Pigouvian tax

15 15 Wetlands $14,785 ha -1 yr -1 Lakes/rivers $ 8,498 Tropical forests $ 2,007 Coral reefs $ 675 Open ocean $ 252 Grasslands $ 232

16 16 Waarom?

17 17 Waarom? Cost-Benefit Analysis Dredging (in million € ) CostsBenefits Storage costs Dredging costs 500 Clean-up costs contaminated sediments Total Commercial shipping benefits Revenues clean sand/grit 150 Recreational benefits??? Welfare gain/loss??? Ecological benefits ???

18 18 Based on Daily et al Institutions ValuesServices Ecosystems Decisions Actions and policies Biophysical models Economic and cultural models Information Incentives Samenvatting

19 19 Hoe? Economic Values of ecosystem services Total Economic Value Use valuesNon-use values Direct useIndirect useOption valueBequest valueExistence value Example: -Fish -Lime -Ornaments Example: -Coastal protection -Amenity services -Tourist attraction Example: - Genetic materials for prospecting Example: - Avoided damage from climate change Example: - Rare species - Indigenous rights Tangible/visibleIntangible/hidden Easy to value Difficult to value

20 20 Hoe? Market Valuation Techniques Non-market Valuation Techniques Physical Linkages Behavioural Linkages Revealed Preference Dose-response Functions Market prices Replacement cost Avoidance cost Production function Contingent Valuation Method Stated Preference Choice Experiment Method Use values Use and non-use values Travel Cost Method Hedonic Pricing Value Transfer Cost estimates

21 21 Ervaringen in Nederland  OEI leidraad MKBA 2000  Aanvulling waardering landschap en natuur 2004  Kentallenboek 2005/2006  Functiebenadering (ecosysteemdiensten)  Voornamelijk kostenbenadering obv kentallen  Kritiek economische waardering natuur en milieu CPB  Meer draagvlak bij MNP (milieu-economen)

22 22 Belang stated choice experiments Use & nonuse overwegingen In sommige toepassingen (bijv. Kaderrichtlijn Water, ecologisch herstel, natuurcompensatie) voornamelijk nonuse waarden Van puntschattingen naar waardefuncties ! Choice experiments bij uitstek geschikt om ecosysteemdiensten nader te specificeren (karakterisering beleidsalternatieven)

23 23 (2006)

24 24 (2006)

25 25 (2006)

26 26 (2006)

27 27 Distance-decay

28 28 Dank voor uw aandacht


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