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Cultuur-historische context

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Presentatie over: "Cultuur-historische context"— Transcript van de presentatie:

1 Cultuur-historische context
Vergilius 2011 Hoort bij syllabus uitwerking van pag. 221

2 753 Romulus en Remus stichten Rome

3 Forum drooggelegd - Cloaca Maxima
Heuvels met Sabijnen en Latijn. Forum lag ertussen in

4 510 Einde Koningschap – begin Republiek
Tarquinius Superbus, Etruskische koning weg Aanleiding: verkrachting van Lucretia Eerste consuls: Brutus en Collatinus

5 500 – 270 Verovering van Italië
386 Galliërs veroveren Rome 300 Tot de Po bezet door de Romeinen 270 Zuid Italië bezet Verdeel en heers – divide et impera Belang van Zuid Italië: er woonden Grieken cultureel contact Rome werd ‘beschaafder’ Begin vechten met stammen in Italie, Samnieten, Volsci, Aequi etc. 368 Inval Galliers: vluchten uit de stad, Romeinen concentreren op Capitool. Baard Zuid Italie vocht met Pyrrhus

6 Carthago – Puniërs - Dido

7 264 – 146 Punische Oorlogen 2e was bijna verloren: Hannibal trekt Alpen over, overwint maar verovert Rome niet, Rome verslaat Hannibal in 201 Naweeën in Aeneïs boek 4: Dido verwenst Aeneas en zijn Trojanen Cato: Ceterum censeo Cathaginem esse delendam ‘overigens ben in van mening dat Carthago verwoest moet worden’ 146 Carthago verwoest

8 Problemen in de Republiek
Boerenstand trok weg uit platteland of hun land werd voor weinig geld opgekocht door de Romeinse aristocratie, die stuitend rijk werd. Grootgrondbezit (veel latifundia) Boeren naar de stad: proletariërs Werkloosheid, armoede Afhankelijk van patroni: proletariërs kregen eten Proletariërs stemden op patroni

9 Romeinse Villa op landgoed

10 Plebeïers, vgl. deze mensen in Pakistan

11 Burgeroorlogen Optimaten: aanhangers van de senaatspartij
Populares: behartigden belangen van - Arme mensen - Ex-soldaten Populares waren in senaat in de minderheid: wendden zich dus tot volksvertegenwoordigers: volkstribunen met veto-recht. Het was belangrijk om machtig te zijn

12 49 Pompeius contra Caesar
Pompeius - optimaat Caesar – popularis

13 Caesar dictator juli 46 – maart 44
Clementia : vergevingsgezindheid jegens tegenstanders proletariërs en veteranen krijgen land senaat mort, Caesar vermoord - Brutus en Cassius

14 Marcus Antonius zet de toon 1
Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears; I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him. The evil that men do lives after them; The good is oft interred with their bones; oft: often; interred: buried So let it be with Caesar. The noble Brutus has told you Caesar was ambitious: If it were so, it was a grievous fault, grievous: serious And grievously has Caesar answer'd it. Here, under leave of Brutus and the rest under leave of: with the permission of - For Brutus is an honourable man; So are they all, all honourable men – Come I to speak in Caesar's funeral. He was my friend, faithful and just to me: But Brutus says he was ambitious; And Brutus is an honourable man. He has brought many captives home to Rome Whose ransoms did the general coffers fill: brought wealth to the city Did this in Caesar seem ambitious?

15 Antonius zet de toon 2 When that the poor have cried, Caesar has wept: wept gehuild Ambition should be made of sterner stuff: shouldn’t be soft Yet Brutus says he was ambitious; And Brutus is an honourable man. You all did see that on the Lupercal I thrice presented him a kingly crown, thrice: three times; kingly: king’s Which he did thrice refuse: was this ambition? And, sure, he is an honourable man. I speak not to disprove what Brutus spoke, But here I am to speak what I do know. You all did love him once, not without cause: cause: reason What cause withholds you then, to mourn for him? O judgment! thou art fled to brutish beasts, flee to: become And men have lost their reason. Bear with me; My heart is in the coffin there with Caesar, And I must pause till it come back to me.

16 Antonius en Octavianus
42 Slag bij Philippi; Brutus en Cassius dood Antonius: oosten Octavianus: Westen

17 Antonius en Cleopatra Liz Taylor Richard Burton

18 31 Slag bij Actium: Antonius verslagen

19 27 Vestiging van Principaat
Schijnrepubliek: senaat bleef, republikeinse ambten ook, maar: Octavianus wordt Augustus ‘de verhevene’ Imperator: opperbevel over troepen Princeps civitatis Divi Filius Augustus krijgt een grote auctoritas: informeel gezag door zijn verdiensten Consuls worden benoemd door Augustus

20 Pax Augusta: periode vrede en voorspoed
“Herstel” van de republiek Herstel van normen en waarden, de mores: leven in dienst van staat en familia Er waren te weinig burgers, dus - veel kinderen - geen overspel - trouwen

21 Ara Pacis – ondersteuning ideologie

22 Ara Pacis Keizerlijke processie

23 Ara Pacis - Aarde: vrede brengt welvaart

24 Sculptuur Augustus : imperator Augustus: Gens Julia Ascanius = Julus
Cupido afgebeeld Geïdealiseerd: rustig en op afstand jong en sterk, een held: de beste om Rome te besturen Afbeeldingen van goden symboliseren dat de gebeurtenissen logisch waren. Zon en maan zijn eeuwig, dus het succes van de Romeinen is door de goden georganiseerd en goedgekeurd. Augustus is shown in this role of "Imperator", the commander of the army, as thoracatus —or commander-in-chief of the Roman army (literally, thorax-wearer) — meaning the statue should form part of a commemorative monument to his latest victories; he is in military clothing, carrying a consular baton and raising his right hand in a rhetorical "adlocutio" pose, addressing the troops. The bas-reliefs on his armored "cuirass" have a complex allegorical and political agenda, alluding to diverse Roman deities, including Mars god of war, as well as the personifications of the latest territories conquered by him: Hispania, Gaul, Germania, Parthia (that had humiliated Crassus, and here appears in the act of returning the standards captured from his legions); at the top, the chariot of the Sun illuminates Augustus's deeds. The statue is an idealized image of Augustus based on the fifth-century BC statue of the Spear Bearer or Doryphoros by the sculptor Polykleitos. Compare the Orator in the Museo Archeologico in Florence. The Doryphoros's contrapposto stance, creating diagonals between tense and relaxed limbs, a feature typical of classical sculpture, is adapted here. The misidentification of the Doryphoros in the Roman period as representing the warrior Achilles made the model all the more appropriate for this image.[2] Despite the Republican influence in the portrait head, the overall style is closer to Hellenistic idealisation than to the realism of Roman portraiture. Despite the accuracy with which Augustus' features are depicted (with his sombre look and characteristic fringe), the distant and tranquil expression of his face has been idealized, as have the conventional contrapposto, the anatomical proportions and the deep drape paludamentum or "cloth of the commander". On the other hand, Augustus's barefootedness and the inclusion of Cupid riding a dolphin as structural support for the statue reveals his supposed mythical ancestry to the goddess Venus (Cupid's mother) by way of his adopted father Julius Caesar. The clear Greek inspiration in style and symbol for official sculptural portraits, which under the Roman emperors became instruments of governmental propaganda is a central part of Augustian ideological campaign, a shift from the Roman Republican era iconography where old and wise features were seen as symbols of solemn character. Therefore the Primaporta statue marks a conscious reversal of iconography to the Greek classical and Hellenistic period in which youth and strength were valued as signs of leadership, emulating heroes and culminating in Alexander the Great himself. Such a statue's political function was very obvious - to show Rome that the emperor Augustus was an exceptional figure, comparable to the heroes worthy of being raised to divine status on Olympus, and the best man to govern Rome. [edit] Polychromy See also: Art in ancient Greece#Polychromy: painting on statuary and architecture It is almost certain that the Augustus was originally painted, but so few traces remain today (having been lost in the ground and having faded since discovery) that historians have had to fall back on old watercolors and new scientific investigations for evidence. Today, the Vatican Museums have produced a copy of the statue so as to paint it in the theorized original colours, as confirmed when the statue was cleaned in 1999 : it can be viewed here. However, an art historian of the University of St Andrews in Scotland, Fabio Barry, has criticized this reconstitution as unsubtle and exaggerated.[3] Vincenz Brinkmann of Munich researched the use of color on ancient sculpture in the 1980s using ultraviolet rays to find traces of color. [edit] Iconography [edit] Portrait The haircut is made up of divided, thick strands of hair, with a strand directly over the middle of Augustus's forehead framed by other strands over it. From the left two strands stray onto the forehead, and from the right three strands, a hairstyle first found on this statue. This hairstyle also marks this statue out as Augustus from comparison with his portrait on his coinage, which can also give a date to it.[4] This particular hairstyle is used as the first sign to point out this portrait type of Augustus as the Prima Porta type, the second and most popular of three official portrait types: other hairstyles of Augustus may be seen on the Ara Pacis, for example. Another full-size statue of Augustus with these "Primaporta type" features is the Augustus of Via Labicana, portraying Augustus in the role of Pontifex Maximus, now in the Museo Nazionale Romano. The head The face is idealized, as with those of Polyclitus's statues. Art underwent important changes during Augustus's reign, with the extreme realism that dominated the republican era giving way to Greek influence, as seen in the portraits of the emperors - idealizations summarizing all the virtues that should be possessed by the exceptional man worthy of governing the Empire. In earlier portraits, Augustus allowed himself to be portrayed in monarchical fashion, but amended these with later more diplomatic images that represented him as "primus inter pares". The head and neck were produced separately in Parian marble and inserted to the torso. The statue's iconography is frequently compared to that of the carmen saeculare by Horace, and commemorates Augustus's establishment of the Pax Romana. The breastplate is carved in relief with numerous small figures depicting the return of the Roman legionary eagles or aquilae lost to Parthia by Mark Anthony in the 40s BC and by Crassus in 53 BC, thanks to the diplomacy of Augustus. [edit] Breastplate relief The figure in the centre, according to the most common interpretation, is the subjected Parthian king returning Crassus's standard to an armored Roman (possibly Tiberius, or symbolically Mars Ultor). This was a very popular subject in Augustan propaganda, as one of his greatest international successes, and had to be especially strongly emphasized, since Augustus had been deterred by Parthian military strength from the war which the Roman people had expected and had instead opted for diplomacy. To the left and right sit mourning female figures. A figure to one side with a sheathed sword personifies the peoples in the East (and the Teutons?) forced to pay tribute to Rome, and one on the other side with an unsheathed sword obviously personifies the subjected peoples (the Celts). From the top, clockwise, we see: Sol, the sun god, spreading the tent of the sky Aurora and Luna the personification of the subjected peoples the goddess Diana the earth goddess Ceres/Tellus - similarly represented on the Ara Pacis Apollo, Augustus's patron the personification of the tributary peoples a Sphinx on each shoulder, representing the defeat of Cleopatra by Augustus Sol again None of these interpretations are undisputed. The gods, however, probably all symbolize the continuity and logical consistency of the events - just as the sun and moon forever rise, so Roman successes are certain and divinely sanctioned. Furthermore, these successes are connected with the wearer of this breastplate, Augustus. The only active person is the Parthian king, implying that everything else is divinely desired and ordained. [edit] Divine status During his lifetime, Augustus did not wish to be depicted as a god (unlike the later emperors who embraced divinity), but this statue has many thinly-veiled references to the emperor's "divine nature", his genius. Augustus is shown barefoot, which indicates that he is a hero and perhaps even a god, and also adds a civilian aspect to an otherwise military portrait. Being barefoot was only previously allowed on images of the gods, but it may also imply that the statue is a posthumous copy set up by Livia of a statue from the city of Rome in which Augustus was not barefoot. The small Cupid (son of Venus) at his feet (riding on a dolphin, Venus's patron animal) is a reference to the claim that the Julian family were descended from the goddess Venus, made by both Augustus and by his adoptive father Caesar - a way of claiming divine lineage without claiming the full divine status, which was acceptable in the Greek East but not yet in Rome itself. [edit] Type

25 Literatuur: kring van Maecenas
Horatius Vergilius 70 – 19 v Chr, geboren in Manua, van eenvoudige afkomst, volgde opleiding in retorica 39 v. Chr. Bucolica: 10 herdersgedichten In 4e ecloga wordt geboorte van een kind aangekondigd, wat een terugkeer van het gouden tijdperk lijkt v. Chr. Georgica 4 boeken Geschreven tijdens strijd Antonius en Octavianus Liefde voor het land en eenvoudig boerenleven. Verwantschap met idealen van Augustus’ regime: eenvoudig geluk, respect voor goden, arbeidzaam leven en vrede 30 – 19 v. Chr. Aeneïs niet af, Vergilius wilde het laten verbranden, maar Augustus liet het toch uitgeven. Aeneas krijgt bevel van de goden om in Italië een nieuw vaderland te stichten, waarbij hij geholpen werd door Venus, maar tegengewerkt door Juno Aeneas legt de basis van Romeinse rijk.

26 Politieke situatie leven van Vergilius
Burgeroorlog van Caesar en Pompeius Vergilius 19 jaar Moord op Caesar 25 Slag bij Philippi: 28 Slag bij Actium: 38 - Dankbaar voor einde burgeroorlogen - Bracht tijdens regime Augustus (Pax Augusta) idealen onder woorden, zoals de oud-Romeinse virtutes - Aeneas is proto-Romein en voorafschaduwing van Augustus, hij is de zoon van Venus

27 Plato’s grot soma - sèma

28 Geestelijk leven - Plato
Plato: ziel is onsterfelijk, uit andere wereld, lichaam is kerker – soma = sèma Na dood wordt ziel gereinigd en daarna gereïncarneerd (caro, carnis: vlees) Mensen die goed geleefd hebben naar het Elysium

29 Reis door onderwereld

30 Geestelijk leven - Stoa
Ratio, vurige kracht, is in alles Ratio komt overeen met het Fatum, alles is voorbeschikt Mens heeft deel aan Ratio en kan de Ratio begrijpen Een Stoïcus laat zich niet te veel lijden door emoties, zoals Dido. Dido heeft furor in zich. Aeneas wordt met vallen en opstaan steeds meer een Stoïsche held

31 Stoa- zuilengallerij

32 Religie in de Aeneïs Traditionele goden Fatum = wil van Jupiter
Lot wil dat Rome heerst Aeneas is grondlegger van Rome Andere goden moeten buigen voor Fatum Aeneas is pius: hij gehoorzaamt aan wat voor hem bepaald is door Ratio-Fatum-Jupiter, ondanks de persoonlijke offers die hij moet brengen

33 Geestelijk leven Traditionele goden? Filosofie Godsdienst:
- Staatsgodsdienst - Offers en rituelen om goden te vriend te houden Staatsgodsdienst bindt: - Augustus vond godsdienst dus belangrijk

34 Aeneas offert - reliëf op Ara Pacis

35 Dante Divina Commedia Reis door alle regionen van Hel, Louteringsberg en Paradijs, vol ontmoetingen met zielen uit het verleden. Zij vertellen over dat verleden, maar door hun vermogen in de toekomst te zien, kunnen ze ook dramatisch ontvouwen wat Dante, zijn stad en land te wachten staat. Dante wordt door Vergilius door het vagevuur en de hel rondgeleid

36 Vondel - Gysbrecht Opgevoerd ter gelegenheid van opening eerste stenen
Amsterdamse schouwburg O, Kerstnacht, schoner dan de dagen Naar boek 2 Vergilius, nl verwoesting van Troje en vertrek Aeneas De Gysbrecht gaat over de belegering van de stad door de omliggende dorpen. Aanleiding is de vermeende betrokkenheid van Gijsbrecht bij de ontvoering en doodslag van Floris V in De vijandelijke soldaten lijken zich aanvankelijk terug te trekken, maar duiken als gevolg van een list van het personage 'Vosmaar, de Spie' onverwacht weer op. Gijsbrecht wordt na hevige gevechten gedwongen met zijn vrouw Badeloch en hun kinderen naar Pruisen te vluchten om daar een Nieuw Holland te stichten. achter ‘dorpen’. ‘Floris’ ipv ‘Foris’. Spatie tussen ‘te’ en ‘vluchten’. Komma niet nodig achter ‘vluchten

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