25.1 Present Perfect Continuous Vorm: have / has + been + ww + -ingGebruik:Toen begonnen; nu nog steeds zo Vaak nadruk op tijdsduurSignaalwoordenfor …, since …I have been waiting for the bus for hours now!
3Examples!1. Mandy and Bryony ... (rehearse) for Pop Idol for days now.2. Rick, you ... (look) on the internet all morning. Now it's my turn!3. Rick ... (take) the sedatives for a month now.4. I … (wait) for the train since 3 o’clock.
4Examples!1. Mandy and Bryony have been rehearsing (rehearse) for Pop Idol for days now.2. Rick, you have been looking (look) on the internet all morning. Now it's my turn!3. Rick has been taking (take) the sedatives for at least a month now.4. I have been waiting (wait) for the train since 3 o’clock.
55.2 Past Perfect Vorm: had + voltooid deelwoord Gebruik: 2 handelingen in het verleden. De verste in het verleden krijgt de past perfect.Maaike told me about the car she had seen.
6Examples!1. Mr Cedillo told the press that when he came home his wife ... (already disappear).2. When Mum turned on the TV the flight to Miami ... (already crash).3. Dad told Mum that he ... (never know) that Rick had nightmares.4. After they … (make) suitable arrangements, they went on holiday.
7Examples!1. Mr Cedillo told the press that when he came home his wife had already disappeared (already disappear).2. When Mum turned on the TV the flight to Miami had already crashed (already crash).3. Dad told Mum that he had never known (never know) that Rick had nightmares.4. After they had made (make) suitable arrangements, they went on holiday.
85.3 Past Perfect Continuous Vorm: had + been + ww + -ingGebruik:Bezig op een moment in het verleden. Vaak om aan te geven dat iets al enige tijd bezig wasSignaalwoordenfor …, since …I had been training for the Olympics for years when I finally got the chance to participate!
9Examples!1. When the pilot of flight 19 finally arrived he ... (drink) for hours.2. My Mum … (train) for weeks before she finally lost some weight.3. Before Judy finally flew to Miami, she … (save) every single penny.4. Rick … (feel) strange for some time. Then he had a nightmare.
10Examples!1. When the pilot of flight 19 finally arrived he had been drinking (drink) for hours.2. My Mum had been training (train) for weeks before she finally lost some weight.3. Before Judy finally flew to Miami, she had been saving (save) every single penny.4. Rick had been feeling (feel) strange for some time. Then he had a nightmare.
115.4 Passive Vorm: Wanneer gebruik je het? Het onderwerp doet NIETS! vorm van ’to be’ (worden) + voltooid deelwoordWanneer gebruik je het?Om aan te geven wat er gebeurt; het is niet belangrijk wie het doet:Het onderwerp doet NIETS!
12Present Perfect Passive Present Passive:Tim is asked to leave the roomPast PassiveTim was asked to leave the roomPresent Perfect PassiveWe’ve been told not to leave yetTo be: am/is/are voor present passivewas/were voor past passivehave been voor present perfect passive+ voltooid deelwoord
13Examples! Present Perfect Passive cause His sleepiness … by the sedatives.call Don’t worry, your neighbour …(already)decide Can you tell me what .. during myabsence.destroy Perhaps it … in this terrible aircrash.
14Examples! Present Perfect Passive cause His sleepiness has been caused by the sedatives.call Don’t worry, your neighbour has already been called (already)decide Can you tell me what has been decided during my absence.destroy Perhaps it has been destroyed in this terrible air crash.
155.5 be able to / be allowed to / have to Be able to kunnen / in staat zijnI am able to drink a beer in ten seconds.I will be able to buy a car.Be allowed to mogen / toegestaan zijnHe is allowed to go to the party tonightHe will be allowed to leave at 3 o’clockHave to moeten (verplicht)You have to do your homework.You will have to go on a business trip.In de verleden tijd is de vorm van ‘to be’ : was/were
165.6 could have, should have, would have, might have Vorm: could/should/would/might + have + voltooid deelwoord.Betekenis: could have had kunnenshould have had (eigenlijk) moetenwould have zou hebbenmight have zou misschien hebben
175.7 do Gebruik: Om nadruk aan te geven She didn’t sleep well last night, but she did sleep well the night before!Rick doesn’t have to calm down. He does have to calm down!
185.8 Betrekkelijke voornaamwoorden Opties:Who -> personenWhom -> personen (na voorzetsel)Which -> dingenThat -> als vervanging van ‘who’ en ‘which’(niets) -> …An exercise … I‘ve never checkedI = onderwerp
19Examples! who / which / that / Ø 1. The boy … dreamt about the plane … crashed yesterday is called Rick.2. He is not the kind of boy … often has nightmares, but the dream … he had yesterday was horrible.
20Examples! who / which / that / Ø 1. The boy who dreamt about the plane which / that crashed yesterday is called Rick.2. He is not the kind of boy who / that often has nightmares, but the dream which / that / Ø he had yesterday was horrible.
215.9 bijvoeglijk naamwoord <-> bijwoord Zegt iets over een zelfstandig naamwoord:a beautiful personBijwoord lyGeeft aan hoe iets gebeurt:to sing beautifullyUitzonderingen: always, still, never, often, well
22Een bijwoord zegt iets over: Een werkwoord: to act normallyEen bijvoeglijk naamwoord: A perfectly normal houseEen ander bijwoord: She sings extremely beautifullyEen hele zin: Luckily, you didn’t miss the bus.