De presentatie wordt gedownload. Even geduld aub

De presentatie wordt gedownload. Even geduld aub

Bas Kruiswijk Leiden 14-4-2010 Enterprise Architecture.

Verwante presentaties

Presentatie over: "Bas Kruiswijk Leiden 14-4-2010 Enterprise Architecture."— Transcript van de presentatie:

1 Bas Kruiswijk Leiden Enterprise Architecture

2 © Twynstra Gudde Enterprise Architecture 2 Overview Part 2: Enterprise architecture –Introduction to ICT architecture –Enterprise architecture –Why is enterprise architecture so important? –Central concepts: views, viewpoints, stakeholders –The classic framework for enterprise architecture: Zachman –Other frameworks for enterprise architecture –Software architecture

3 © Twynstra Gudde Enterprise Architecture 3 Enterprise architecture Individual ICT system scope Focus on specification, design and realisation Enterprise scope Focus on strategy and communication Conceptual foundations Enterprise architecture Software architecture Service oriented architecture

4 © Twynstra Gudde Enterprise Architecture 4 Enterprise architecture Why is it so important? (1) –A lot of ICT projects fail –The majority (50% - 70%) of technology implementations fail1 1 –75% of all attempts to introduce automation to the workplace have failed 1 –There is always more than ICT alone –Technology introduction requires (major) changes outside the technology domain, which the technology introduction does not ‘automatically’ bring about 2 –Looking at technology alone is insufficient for making technology ‘work’ 2 –More stringent financial governance (usually) does not help –There is no correlation between investment in IT and profitability, or other key measures of business success 3 1. Rechting, E. – Systems Architecting of Organizations (2000) 2. Scott Morton, M.S. – The Corporation of the 1990s (1991) 3. Pisello, T., Strassmann, P. – IT Value Chain Management – Maximizing ROI from IT Investments Source: J.A.P. Hoogervorst

5 © Twynstra Gudde Enterprise Architecture 5 Enterprise architecture Why is it so important? (2) –An integrated enterprise design focus is the key to increasing success of ICT implementations! –Success of ICT implementation can be increased by an integrated design and implementation of business, organizational, informational and technological arrangements –On an enterprise scale –This ‘operationalizes’ business – IT alignment (the contribution of ICT to business goals and strategy)

6 © Twynstra Gudde Enterprise Architecture 6 Enterprise architecture What is it? –Gives insight into, and an integrated overview of –business processes –information functionality –information systems / applications, and –underlying infrastructure in relationship to each other –Also includes the relationships to the environment –Besides models, the architecture consists of principles and rules that guide the design and evolution over time –Defines the common IT platform, i.e. middleware etc. –Justifies and protect long-term ICT investments (i.e. in generic facilities in the common IT platform) –Guarantees a certain amount of flexibility and openness –Serves as the most important means of communication

7 © Twynstra Gudde Enterprise Architecture 7 Definition of ICT-architectuur IEEE 1471 –The fundamental organization of a system embodied in its components, their relationships to each other, and to the environment, and the principles guiding its design and development –Fundamental organization of a complex system –Its constituting components –Their relationship to eachother and to the environment –And principles and guidelines for design and development IEEE 1471: Recommended Practice for Architectural Descriptions of Software-intensive Systems IEEE: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers –a non-profit, technical professional association –a leading authority in technical areas ranging from computer engineering, biomedical technology and telecommunications, to electric power, aerospace and consumer electronics

8 © Twynstra Gudde Enterprise Architecture 8 Central concepts for Enterprise Architecture Views and viewpoints –Architecture cannot be described in a one-dimensional way –No single view can represent the whole architecture –To address the concerns of different stakeholders you need different views that focus on these concerns –Viewpoint –A way of looking at a system –View –What you see when looking from the chosen viewpoint

9 © Twynstra Gudde Enterprise Architecture 9 Central concepts for Enterprise Architecture Views and viewpoints (2) –View –Collection of models, representing the whole system, with respect to a set of related concerns –A view belongs to a particular architectural description –Viewpoint –The rules for constructing and analyzing a particular kind of view –including the choice for an ADL (architecture description language) –A reusable template

10 © Twynstra Gudde Enterprise Architecture 10 Views and viewpoints View Architecture Viewpoint Stakeholder

11 © Twynstra Gudde Enterprise Architecture 11 Architectural frameworks –Based on the concepts of views and viewpoints –A particular choice for certain viewpoints, related tot certain concerns of stakeholders –An architectural framework –Defines a set of concrete viewpoints (architectures) –Defines the aspects that are described and modeled in each of these architectures / viewpoints –Defines the stakeholders –(Sometimes) defines modeling conventions or language –(Sometimes) defines the proces of creating an enterprise architecture –(Sometimes) defines a set of tools to be used

12 © Twynstra Gudde Enterprise Architecture 12 The architectures within an Enterprise Architecture Technical Architecture Information Architecture Business Architecture Application Architecture Relationship

13 © Twynstra Gudde Enterprise Architecture 13 The architectures within an Enterprise Architecture Technical Architecture Information Architecture Business Architecture Application Architecture Relationship Proposition and market Products and services Business processes Organization and governance Information-processing functionality Functional areas / objects Datamodel and data dictionary Applications and interfaces Common infrastructural facilities Design principles and guidelines Data structure / databases Hardware Network Physical locations Technical standards Models Rules – Standards – Principles - Guidelines

14 © Twynstra Gudde Enterprise Architecture 14 Examples of architectural frameworks –General frameworks –Zachman Architecture Framework (the classical framework) –TOGAF (The Open Group Architecture Framework) –DYA (Sogeti) –Practical examples –Example UWV/Werkbedrijf –NORA (Reference architecture for Dutch government and public organisations) –Twynstra Gudde

15 © Twynstra Gudde Enterprise Architecture 15 Zachman framework A framework for information systems architecture –Published in IBM Systems Journal, 1987 –Based on the concepts in classical architecture –Application of views and viewpoints ‘avant la lettre’ –A generic set of architectural descriptions –Different views for each of the stakeholders –As another dimension, a set of different aspects –The architectural representations differ in nature, independent of the level of detail

16 © Twynstra Gudde Enterprise Architecture 16 Some quotes... –“The increased scope of design and levels of complexity of information systems implementations are forcing the use of some logical construct (or architecture) for defining and controlling the interfaces and the integration of all of the components of the system.” –“Since the technology permits ‘distributing’ large amounts of computing facilities in small packages to remote locations, some kind of structure (or architecture) is imperative because decentralization without structure is chaos.” –“What, in fact, is information systems architecture?”... the words’ information systems architecture’ are already losing their meaning. ”

17 © Twynstra Gudde Enterprise Architecture 17 Based on concepts in classical architecture Building a house RepresentationNature / purpose Bubble charts Basic concepts for building Gross sizing, shape, spatial relationships Architect/owner mutual understanding Initiate project Architect’s drawing Final building as seen by the owner Floor plans, cutaways, pictures Architect/owner agreement on building Establish contract Architect’s plans Final building as seen by the designer Translation of an owner’s view of a product Detailed drawings – 16 categories Basis for negotiation with general contractor Contractor’s plans Final building as seen by the builder Architect’s plans constrained by laws of nature and available technology “How to build it” description Directs construction activities Shop plans Subcontracter’s design of a part/section Detailed stand-alone model Specification of what is to be constructed Pattern BuildingPhysical building

18 © Twynstra Gudde Enterprise Architecture 18 Observations –Three fundamental architectural representations, one for each “player in the game” –Owner: A product that will serve some purpose –Designer: A design of a physical product –Builder: A producable product –Preliminary actions: Establish the ball park where all of the ensuing architectural activities take place –Subsequent actions: Detailed, out-of-context representations –These architectural representations differ in nature, independent of the level of detail

19 © Twynstra Gudde Enterprise Architecture 19 Zachman framework The different views, for each of the stakeholders –Scope - Ballpark view –Definition of the scope: the enterprise’s direction, business purpose and goals: the context for the entire architecture –Model of the business - Owner’s view –Model of the organisation: structure, functions and organisation –Model of the information system - Architect’s view –Model and description of the requirements in more rigorous information terms –Technology model - Designer’s view –Translation into technological solutions; how technology may be used to address the information processing needs –Detailed representations - Builder’s view –Detailed specifications and program code etc. –Functioning system

20 © Twynstra Gudde Enterprise Architecture 20 Zachman framework Different aspects –Data (What) –Function (How) –Network (Where) –People (Who) –Time (When) –Motivation (Why)

21 © Twynstra Gudde Enterprise Architecture 21

22 © Twynstra Gudde Enterprise Architecture 22

23 © Twynstra Gudde Enterprise Architecture 23

24 © Twynstra Gudde Enterprise Architecture 24 TOGAF The Open Group 1 Architecture Framework –Architecture Development Method (ADM) –An iterative sequence of steps to develop an enterprise-wide architecture –The Enterprise Continuum –During application of the ADM, assets are created or drawn from existing assets, used, modified and returned to the virtual repository that is the Enterprise Continuum –Resource Base –During application of the ADM, processes, templates, checklists and other items from the Resource Base are deployed as methods to develop the architecture The Open Group is a vendor-neutral and technology-neutral consortium, whose vision of Boundaryless Information Flow™ will enable access to integrated information, within and among enterprises, based on open standards and global interoperability. 1)

25 © Twynstra Gudde Enterprise Architecture 25 TOGAF Architectural views –Business (or business process) architecture –Defining the business strategy, governance, organization, and key business processes of the organization –Applications architecture –Providing a blueprint for the individual application systems to be deployed, the interactions between the application systems, and their relationships to the core business processes of the organization –Data architecture –Describing the structure of an organization's logical and physical data assets and the associated data management resources –Technology architecture –Describing the software infrastructure intended to support the deployment of core, mission-critical applications

26 © Twynstra Gudde Enterprise Architecture 26 TOGAF ADM: Architecture Development Methodology

27 © Twynstra Gudde Enterprise Architecture 27 DYA Dynamic architecture – the DYA-model –Sogeti’s vision on how to work with enterprise architecture –DYA is a method, a process in the first place

28 © Twynstra Gudde Enterprise Architecture 28 DYA The DYA framework of architectural views Architecture objects Levels of abstraction

29 © Twynstra Gudde Enterprise Architecture 29 DYA The 10 main principles 1.Architecture is strategic if IT is strategic 2.Architecture must facilitate pace of change 3.Communication between business and IT management is crucial 4.Business objectives govern the development of architecture 5.The level of architecture will be continually raised if architecture is aligned to important business changes 6.Architecture must be developed “just enough, just in time” 7.Working within architecture is supported by a theoretical and working model 8.Transparent relationships must be defined 9.Several development strategies are distinguished 10.Architectural principles and processes must be an integral part of the organization

30 © Twynstra Gudde Enterprise Architecture 30 NORA (Dutch Government Reference Architecture) –Architecture matrix

31 © Twynstra Gudde Enterprise Architecture 31 Logisch Conceptueel Fysiek Bedrijf Informatie Basis bedrijfs- model Proces- simulatie Proces- model Informatie- systeem architectuur Technische Infrastructuur Conceptuele technische architectuur Logische technische architectuur Applicatie Conceptuele applicatie- architectuur Logische applicatie- architectuur Contextueel SUWI-wet BP2002 RWP (architectuur) CWI- werkprocessen Rapport business- architectuur Architectuur van de bedrijfs ondersteuning WAAROM HOE WAT Gegevens- gebieden architectuur Contextuele applicatie- architectuur Contextuele technische architectuur WAARMEE Example: Framework used by UWV/Werkbedrijf

32 © Twynstra Gudde Enterprise Architecture 32 Example: Architecture framework Twynstra Gudde –4 architectural views –Business, Information, Application, technical –Relationships 1.Aplications support business processes 2.Business processes are supported by information and communication functionality 3.Information and communication functionality is provided by applications 4.Applications use / are deployed on the technical infrastructural –4 typical architectural issues –Integration issues –Functional issue –Vision –Migration

33 © Twynstra Gudde Enterprise Architecture 33 Examples of Enterprise Architectures in practice –Twynstra Gudde enterprise architecture portfolio, published in ‘ICT Architectuur in beeld’ – /Architectuurboek

34 © Twynstra Gudde Enterprise Architecture 34 Example of a business architecture

35 © Twynstra Gudde Enterprise Architecture 35 Kantoor automa- tisering Kennis bank MedewerkersRelaties ObjectenProjecten Kerngegevens Scenarioplanning Eindwaarde variant 2 Eindwaarde variant 3 Risicocalculatie Eindwaarde variant 1 Rekenmodel Planning & control Financiële administratie Specifieke toepassingen Objecten beheer Presentatie & Communicatielaag InternetExtranet Actuele documenten Post - registratie Document- flow Archief Intranet Gebouwen- exploitatie Administratie Plan- exploitatie Administratie Grond- exploitatie Administratie Erfpacht administratie Onroerend goed administratie Uren administratie Personeels administratie Relatie beheer Kartografie Representa- vormen object Project administratie Project planning Example of an information architecture (1)

36 © Twynstra Gudde Enterprise Architecture 36 Example of an information architecture (2)

37 © Twynstra Gudde Enterprise Architecture 37 Example of an information architecture (3)

38 © Twynstra Gudde Enterprise Architecture 38 Relationship between business architecture and information architecture 289GROT1f Presentatie, kantoorautomatisering en communicatie Object/medewerker/relaties ProjectadministratieErfpacht adm. GrondexploitatieOnr. goed adm. Gewenste ondersteunende functies: Financiële administratiePlanning en control PKL/RPE/ Uitvoeren economische projecten 5.1 Uitvoeren economische projecten 5.2 Uitvoeren ruimtelijke projecten 5.2 Uitvoeren ruimtelijke projecten 6.1 Monitoren afgeronde ruimtelijke en economische projecten 6.1 Monitoren afgeronde ruimtelijke en economische projecten 6.2 Beheren erfpacht- contracten 6.2 Beheren erfpacht- contracten 6.3 Beheren onroerend goed * Beheren onroerend goed * 2 Kansen ter verbetering van het woon/werk-, verblijf- en leefklimaat van de stad Rotterdam Tevreden gebruikers van de stad Rotterdam Goedgekeurde projecten (definitief) Gerealiseerde projecten 3.1 Vertalen programma’s naar projecten (i.s.m. partners) 3.2 Toetsen haalbaarheid: - financieel - politiek - mensen - middelen - maatschappelijk draagvlak - etc. 3.3 Voorstel ter politieke besluitvorming uitwerken 3.4 Go/No Go-besluit nemen 4.1 Fasering aanbrengen (i.s.m. partners) 4.2 Uitwerken project- beheersing: - tijd - geld - kwaliteit - informatie - organisatie 4.3 Voorstel ter politieke besluitvorming uitwerken 4.4 Go/No Go-besluit nemen 4.5 Partners en belang- hebbenden informeren over genomen besluit Verwerven Ontwikkelen en planbegeleiding Tijdelijk beheren Markt bewerken Uitgeven/verhuren Evalueren Overdragen Partners aanschakelen en binden Draagvlak creëren Verwerven & beheren middelen (geld, inspanning, ruimte, etc.) voor uitvoering Markt bewerken Uitvoeren geplande activiteiten Evalueren Overdragen Nazorg verlenen Account- management uitvoeren Registreren Factureren Indexeren Verwerken mutaties: - heroverwegingen - splitsing - wijzigen bestemmingen - etc Registreren Factureren Indexeren Verwerken mutaties 1.1Signaleren kansen (antennefunctie) 1.2Vertalen kansen naar beleid (i.s.m. partners) 1.3Toetsen aan gemeentelijke kaders (inclusief Rijks- en provinciale overheid) 1.3Voorstel ter politieke besluitvorming (m.n. gemeenteraad) 1.4Go/No Go 2.1Vertalen beleid naar programma’s (i.s.m. partners) 2.2Toetsen haalbaarheid: - financieel - politiek - mensen (capaciteit) - middelen (bijvoorbeeld grond gebouwen) - maatschappelijk draagvlak - etc. 2.3Uitwerken programma- beheersing: - tempo - haalbaarheid - efficiency - flexibiliteit - doelgerichtheid 2.4Voorstel ter politieke besluitvorming uitwerken 2.5Go/No Go-besluit nemen Goedgekeurde projecten (kaders) Goedgekeurde programma’s OBR beleid * 1 Hoeft niet per definitie een gevolg te zijn van projecten * 2 Bedrijfsruimte Huurcontracten Visrecht Pachten etc. 6. Beheren en monitoren resultaat *1 6. Beheren en monitoren resultaat *1 2. Ontwikkelen programma’s 2. Ontwikkelen programma’s 5. Uitvoeren projecten 5. Uitvoeren projecten 4. Voorbereiden projecten 4. Voorbereiden projecten 3. Onderzoeken projecten 3. Onderzoeken projecten 1. Beleids- ontwikkeling 1. Beleids- ontwikkeling Stedelijke ontwikkeling op het gebied van ruimte en economie Stedelijke ontwikkeling op het gebied van ruimte en economie

39 © Twynstra Gudde Enterprise Architecture 39 Relationship between business architecture and application architecture

40 © Twynstra Gudde Enterprise Architecture 40 Relatie tussen informatie- en applicatie- architectuur

41 © Twynstra Gudde Enterprise Architecture 41 Application architecture

42 © Twynstra Gudde Enterprise Architecture 42 Alle intellectuele eigendomsrechten met betrekking tot deze presentatie berusten bij Twynstra Gudde. Niets uit deze presentatie mag worden verveelvoudigd of openbaar gemaakt zonder schriftelijke toestemming van Twynstra Gudde. Bas Kruiswijk

Download ppt "Bas Kruiswijk Leiden 14-4-2010 Enterprise Architecture."

Verwante presentaties

Ads door Google