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De Fundamenten van Individueel Gedrag

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Presentatie over: "De Fundamenten van Individueel Gedrag"— Transcript van de presentatie:

1 De Fundamenten van Individueel Gedrag
Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 2

2 Leerdoelen De heersende waarden van de huidige beroepsbevolking op te sommen Het verband tussen voldoening en productiviteit te beschrijven De theorie van cognitieve dissonantie uiteen te zetten Het verband tussen attitudes en verband samen te vatten Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 2

3 Leerdoelen Uit te leggen hoe twee mensen die hetzelfde zien, dat elk anders interpreteren De attributietheorie uiteen te zetten Het leerproces te schetsen Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 2

4 Soorten Waarden Instrumentele Eindwaarden Waarden
Values represent basic convictions that a “specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence.” Milton Rokeach created the Rokeach Value Survey (RVS) which consists of two sets of values: terminal values or desirable end-states of existence and instrumental values, preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving the terminal values. The following are some examples of terminal values: a world of peace, a sense of accomplishment, a world of beauty, equality, freedom, and salvation. The following are some examples of instrumental values: capable, cheerful, courageous, imaginative, logical, loving, and responsible. Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 2

5 Dominante Waarden in de Huidige Beroepsbevolking
Fase Betrad arbeidsmarkt Huidige leeftijd Dominante arbeidswaarden 1. Protestant arbeidsethos 2. Existentieel 3. Pragmatisch 4. Generatie X s Onder 35 Hardwerkend, onservatief; loyaal aan de organisatie kwaliteit leven, nonconfor-mistisch, wil autonomie; loyaal aan eigen waarden succes, ambitieus, hardwerkend; loyaal aan carrière Flexibel, voldoening in werk; loyaal aan relaties Workers who grew up influenced by the Great Depression, World War II, U.S. leadership in world manufacturing, the Andrews sisters, and the Berlin blockade entered the workforce from the mid-1940s to the late 1950s. They believed in the Protestant work ethic. Once hired, they tend to be loyal to an employer. They are likely to value family security and a comfortable life. Employees who entered the workforce from the 1960s to the mid-1970s were influenced by John F. Kennedy, the civil rights movement, the Beatles, and the war in Vietnam. They brought with them a large measure of the “hippie ethic” and existential philosophy. Quality of life is more important to them than money and possessions. They value autonomy, freedom, and equality. Those who entered the workforce from the mid-1970s through the mid-1980s reflect society’s return to more traditional values but with a greater emphasis on achievement and material success. They were influenced by Ronal Reagan, the defense build-up, dual-career households, and $150,000 starter homes. They are pragmatists who believe that ends can justify means. A sense of accomplishment and social recognition rank high for them. The lives of the members of Generation X have been shaped by globalization, the fall of Communism, MTV, AIDS, and computers. They value flexibility, life options, job satisfaction, family, and relationships. Money is important as an indicator of career performance, but they are willing to trade off leisure time for increases in salary, titles, security, and promotions. Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 2

6 Waarden in Verschillende Culturen
Machtsafstand Individualisme Kwantiteit / kwaliteit leven Onzekerheid vermijden Lange-/korte termijnoriëntatie One of the most widely referenced approaches for analyzing variations across cultures was done by Geert Hofstede. After surveying 116, 000 IBM workers in 40 countries, he found that managers and employees differ on the following five value dimensions of national culture: Power distance is the degree to which people accept that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally. The range is from relatively equal (low power distance) to very unequal (high power distance). Individualism is the degree to which people in a country prefer to act alone rather than as members of groups. Collectivism is the equivalent of low individualism. Quantity of life is the degree to which people value assertiveness, competition, and the acquisition of money and possessions. Quality of life is the degree to which people value relationships and show sensitivity and concern for others. Uncertainty avoidance is the degree to which people prefer structured over unstructured situations. People who score high on uncertainty avoidance have an increased level of anxiety. People in long-term orientation countries look to the future and value thrift and persistence. A short-term orientation values the past and present and emphasizes respect for tradition and social obligations. People in the United States have the following scores: power distance (low), individualism (high), quantity of life (high), uncertainty avoidance (low), and long-term orientation (low). People in China have the following scores: power distance (high), individualism (low), quantity of life (moderate), uncertainty avoidance (moderate), long-term orientation (high). See page 19 in the text for more examples. Most of the concepts that make up the body of knowledge called organizational behavior have been developed by Americans using subjects within domestic contexts. Therefore, not all OB concepts and theories are universally applicable to managing in a global context, especially in countries where work values are considerably different from those in the United States. So cultural values should be considered when trying to understand behavior. Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 2

7 Arbeidssatisfactie Determinanten Arbeidssatisfactie van
en productiviteit Attitudes are evaluative statements (either favorable or unfavorable) about people, objects, or events. OB focuses on a limited number of job-related attitudes--job satisfaction, job involvement, and organizational commitment. Job satisfaction has received the most attention. Job satisfaction refers to an individual’s general attitude toward his or her job. A person with a high level of job satisfaction holds positive attitudes about the job; a person who is dissatisfied with a job holds negative attitudes about it. The most important determinants of job satisfaction are mentally challenging work, equitable pay and rewards, supportive working conditions, and supportive colleagues. Early views on the satisfaction-productivity relationship asserted that “a happy worker is a productive worker.” But research has shown that if satisfaction does have a positive effect on productivity, it is small. The introduction of moderating variables, however, has improved the relationship. For instance, the relationship is stronger if an employee’s behavior is not constrained by outside factors. According to a comprehensive review of the evidence, it appears that productivity is more likely to lead to satisfaction than the other way around. Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 2

8 Invloed op de elementen Mate van Cognitieve Persoonlijke Dissonantie
Individuals seek consistency. Cognitive dissonance occurs when there are inconsistencies between two or more of a person’s attitudes or between a person’s attitudes and behaviors. The theory of cognitive dissonance suggests that people try to minimize dissonance and the discomfort it causes. Several moderating factors suggest that individuals who are experiencing dissonance will not necessarily move directly toward a reduction of the dissonance (consistency). If the elements creating the dissonance are relatively unimportant, the pressure to correct the imbalance will be low. Also, the degree of influence that one has over the elements involved will affect how he or she reacts to dissonance. Rewards also influence the degree to which individuals are motivated to reduce dissonance. Beloningen Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 2

9 Het verband tussen attitude en gedrag
Specifieke Attitudes en Gedrag Sociale Druk Early research on the relationship between attitudes and behavior assumed a causal relationship--that is, the attitudes that people hold determine what they will do. In the late 1960s, this assumed (A-B) relationship was challenged. More recent research suggests that there is a measurable (A-B) relationship, if moderating contingency variables are considered. Concentration on specific attitudes and specific behaviors improves our chances of finding significant A-B relationships. It is one thing to talk about a person being an environmental activist and another to talk about his or her attitude toward “donating $100 to save the whales.” Social constraints may also moderate behavior so strongly that discrepancies between a person’s attitudes and behavior may occur. Group pressures may explain why an anti-union employee attends pro-union organizing meetings. A and B may be at odds for other reasons. People can hold contradictory attitudes, even though there are pressures toward the reduction of cognitive dissonance. Notwithstanding these moderating variables, attitudes do influence behaviors. Tegenstrijdige Attitudes Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 2

10 Factoren die de perceptie beïnvloeden De Waarnemer De Situatie
Het Doel People act on their perceptions, not on reality. Because these perceptions can be distorted, people often misinterpret events and activities. When managers want to explain or predict someone’s behavior, they must understand that person’s perception of the world: how he or she organizes and interprets sensory impressions to give meaning to his or her environment. Factors that can shape or distort perception can reside in the perceiver, in the object, or target, being perceived, or in the context in which the perception is made. When an individual attempts to interpret a target, the following characteristics will heavily influence his or her perception: attitudes, personality, motives, interests, past experiences, and expectations. The following also influence perception: characteristics of the target and its relationship to its background; and contextual elements, such as time, location, light, or heat. Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 2

11 De attributie- theorie
Interpretatie Attributie van de oorzaak Observatie De attributie- theorie Extern Intern Kenmerkendheid Consensus Consistentie Hoog Laag When we observe people, we attempt to develop explanations for their behavior. Our perceptions and judgements will be influenced by the assumptions we make about the person’s internal state. Attribution theory asserts that when we observe behavior, we classify it as either internally or externally motivated. We believe that internally caused behaviors are under an individual’s control; externally caused behaviors are motivated by outside forces. How we determine the source of behavior is determined by three factors: distinctiveness, consensus, and consistency. Distinctiveness refers to whether an individual displays different behavior in different situations. If everyone who is faced with a similar situation responds in the same way, we can say the behavior shows consensus. Finally, an observer looks for consistency in a person’s actions. The figure above summarizes the key elements in attribution theory. Managers should remember that errors and biases can distort attributions. For instance, fundamental attribution error is underestimating the influence of external factors and overestimating the influence of internal factors. Also, attributing success to internal factors and failure to external factors is called self-serving bias. Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 2

12 Shortcuts bij de beoordeling
Veronderstelde overeenkomst Selectiviteit The shortcuts that we use to evaluate others are expeditious, but not foolproof. Because we cannot assimilate everything, what we perceive is selectively chosen depending on our interests, backgrounds, experiences, and attitudes. In assumed similarity, or the “like-me effect,” the observer’s perceptions of others is influenced more by the observer’s own characteristics than by those of the person observed. When we judge someone based on our perception of a group to which he or she belongs, we are stereotyping. When we base our impression of an individual on a single characteristic, such as intelligence or appearance, we are being influenced by the halo effect. Halo Effect Stereotypen Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 2

13 Leerprocessen Vormen Omgeving Omgeving Wet van het effect Imiteren
The slide above outlines the learning process. First, learning helps us adapt to and master our environment. By changing our behavior according to changing conditions, we become responsible citizens and productive workers. But learning is built upon the law of effect, which says that behavior is a function of consequences. Behavior followed by favorable consequences tends to be repeated; behavior followed by unfavorable consequences tends to be abandoned. When learning takes place in steps, it is shaped. Managers shape behavior by systematically reinforcing, through rewards, each successive step that moves the employee closer to the desired behavior. But much of what we learn is the result of watching others and modeling our behavior after them. Even though trial-and-error learning is slow, modeling can produce complex changes in behavior quite rapidly. Imiteren Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 2

14 Belangrijke variabelen voor individueel gedrag
Waarden Motivatie Attitudes Perceptie Individueel gedrag Persoonlijkheid The model above summarizes our discussion of individual behavior. An individual enters an organization with a relatively entrenched set of values and an established personality. Even though they are not permanently fixed, individual attitudes, values, and personality are essentially “givens.” How employees interpret their environment will influence their level of motivation, what they learn on the job, and their on-the-job behavior. We have also added “ability” to the model to acknowledge that an individual’s behavior is influenced by the talents and skills that he or she holds when joining the organization. Learning, of course, will alter this variable over time. Leren Capaciteiten Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 2

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