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Basisbegrippen voor motivatie

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1 Basisbegrippen voor motivatie
Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 4

2 Leerdoelen Het basisproces van motivatie te beschrijven
De behoeftenhiërarchie van Maslow uit te leggen Theorie X en Theorie Y met elkaar te vergelijken Motivatiefactoren en hygiënefactoren tegenover elkaar te zetten Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 4

3 Leerdoelen Aan te geven aan welke kenmerken ambitieuze mensen graag zien in hun baan De soorten doelen samen te vatten die prestaties verbeteren Bekrachtigingstheorie en doelstellingstheorie met elkaar te vergelijken De rechtvaardigheidstheorie uiteen te zetten De belangrijkste verbanden in de verwachtingstheorie uit te leggen Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 4

4 Het basismotivatieproces
Onbevredigde behoefte Spanning Drijfveer Zoekgedrag Motivation is the willingness to do something and is conditioned by the ability of the action to satisfy some need for the individual. A need is a physiological or psychological deficiency that makes certain outcomes appear attractive. In the motivation process, an unsatisfied need creates tension, which stimulates drive within the individual. These drives generate a search for goals that if attained will satisfy the need and reduce tension. The greater the tension, the more activity will be needed to bring about relief. Therefore, when we see someone working hard at some activity, we can conclude that they are driven by a desire to achieve a goal they value. Bevredigde behoefte Spannings- vermindering Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 4

5 Fysiologische behoeften
De behoeften- hiërarchie van Maslow Zelfverwerkelijking Respect Sociale behoeften Veiligheid Fysiologische behoeften According to Abraham Maslow, within every human being, the following hierarchy of needs exists. The first three are deficiency needs because they must be satisfied if the individual is to be healthy and secure. The last two are growth needs because they are related to the development and achievement of one’s potential. As each of these needs becomes substantially satisfied, the next higher need becomes dominant. 1. Physiological needs. Hunger, thirst, shelter, sex, and other survival needs. 2. Safety needs. Security, stability, and protection from physical or emotional harm. 3. Belongingness needs. Social interaction, affection, companionship, and friendship. 4. Esteem needs. Self-respect, autonomy, achievement, status, recognition, and attention. 5. Self-actualization needs. Growth, self-fulfillment, and achieving one’s potential. Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 4

6 verantwoordelijkheden verantwoordelijkheid Wijzen en sturen zichzelf
Theorie X Werknemers Werken met tegenzin Onttrekken zich aan verantwoordelijkheden Weinig ambitieus Theorie Y Werknemers Vinden werken leuk Aanvaarden verantwoordelijkheid Wijzen en sturen zichzelf in de juiste richting Douglas McGregor said that managers hold one of two sets of assumptions about human nature: either Theory X or Theory Y. Seeing people as irresponsible and lazy, managers who follow Theory X assume the following: 1. Employees inherently dislike work and, when they can, will try to avoid it. 2. Since employees dislike work, they must be coerced, controlled, or threatened to achieve goals. 3. Employees avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction, if possible. 4. Most workers place security above all other work-related factors and will display little ambition. Seeing people as responsible and conscientious, managers who follow Theory Y assume the following: 1. Employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play. 2. When committed to their objectives, people will exercise self-direction and self-control 3. The average person can learn to accept, even seek, responsibility. 4. Many workers besides managers have innovative decision-making skills. Unfortunately, no hard evidence confirms that either set of assumptions is universally true. It is more likely that the assumptions of Theory X or Theory Y may be situationally appropriate. Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 4

7 Herzberg’s Twee-factorentheorie
Hygiënefactoren Motivatiefactor Kwaliteit van toezicht Beloning Bedrijfsbeleid Fysieke werkomstandigheden Relaties met anderen Zekerheid van een vaste baan Kans op promotie Mogelijkheden voor persoonlijke groei Erkenning Verantwoordelijkheid Succes Frederick Herzberg asked workers to describe situations in which they felt either good or bad about their jobs. His findings are called motivation-hygiene theory. Herzberg asserted that intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction whereas extrinsic factors are associated with dissatisfaction. So, he called company policy, supervision, interpersonal relations, working conditions, and salary hygiene factors. When these factors are adequate, people will not be dissatisfied; however, they will not be satisfied either. He believed that achievement, recognition, the work itself, growth, and responsibility are motivational because people find them intrinsically rewarding. Hoog Ontevredenheid Tevredenheid Hoog Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 4

8 Behoefte aan prestaties (nAch) De behoeftentheorie van McClelland
macht (nPow) David McClelland proposed that three learned needs motivate behavior. The need for achievement (nAch) is the need to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to succeed. The need for power (nPow) is the need to make others behave in ways in which they would not have behaved otherwise. The need for affiliation (nAff) is the desire for interpersonal relationships. He believed that these needs are acquired from the culture of a society. Behoefte aan affiliatie (nAff) Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 4

9 Doelstellingstheorie
Concrete doelen Doelstellingstheorie Moeilijke doelen Goal setting theory asserts that intentions expressed as goals can be a major source of work motivation. Specific, hard-to-achieve goals produce a higher level of output than a broadly stated goal of “do your best.” The specificity of the goal itself is an internal stimulus. If factors such as ability and acceptance of goals are held constant, we can state that the more difficult the goals, the higher the performance level. While easier goals are more readily accepted, once a worker accepts a hard task, he or she will persist until the goal is achieved, lowered, or abandoned. The evidence is mixed over the superiority of participation over assigned goals. A significant advantage of participation may be increased acceptance of the goal itself. Those who participate in goal setting are likely to accept and be committed to a course of action that they helped to determine. If acceptance of a goal is a given, the participation may not be relevant. But if acceptance of a goal is not a given, participation does increase the probability that difficult goals will be accepted and pursued. Doelen en participatie Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 4

10 De Bekrachtigingstheorie
Consequenties Beloningen Geen beloningen Straffen Gedrag Rather than taking a cognitive approach (as goal-setting theory), reinforcement theory is a behavioral approach which assumes that reinforcement conditions behavior and that behavior is environmentally caused. Reinforcement theory does not concern itself with what initiates behavior, so it is not a “true” theory of motivation. (See Chapter 12 for a discussion of how using reinforcers to condition behavior gives us considerable insight into how people learn.) Reinforcement theory ignores feelings, expectations, and attitudes, all cognitive variables that are known to influence behavior. But it also has a wide following as a motivational device. Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 4

11 De rechtvaardigheidstheorie
Verhouding input/uitkomsten Werknemers beoordeling uitkomsten A Input A uitkomsten B Input B < = > Ongelijkheid (Onder-beloond) Gelijkheid Ongelijkheid (Over-beloond) De rechtvaardigheidstheorie Workers compare their job inputs and outcomes with others. There are three possible perceptions: inequity due to being under-rewarded, equity, or inequity due to being over-rewarded. Equity theory proposes that inequity creates tension, and that this tension can cause an employee to seek fairness. There are four referents that an employee can use: (1) Self-inside: an employee’s experiences in a different position inside the organization. (2) Self-outside: an employee’s experiences in a position outside of the organization. (3) Other-inside: an employee’s perception of persons inside the organization. (4) Other-outside: an employee’s perception of persons outside of the organization. Workers who perceive an inequity will react in one of six ways: change their inputs, change their outcomes, distort perceptions of self, distort perceptions of others, choose a different referent, or leave the field. Equity theory establishes four propositions relating to inequitable pay. First, given payment by time, over-rewarded employees will produce more than those paid equitably. Second, given payment by quantity of production, over-rewarded employees will produce fewer, but higher quality units, than will equitably paid employees. Third, given payment by time, under-rewarded employees will produce less or poorer quality of output. Fourth, given payment by quantity of production, under-rewarded employees will produce a large number of low-quality units in comparison with equitably paid employees. aPersoon A is de werknemer, persoon B is iemand uit de categorie `anderen' bestaande uit mensen met eenzelfde soort baan in dezelfde organisatie plus vrienden, buren of vakgenoten. Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 4

12 De verwachtingstheorie
Individuele inspanning Individuele prestaties Beloningen van organisatie Expectancy theory argues that an employee will be motivated to produce more when he or she believes that the effort will lead to a good performance appraisal; that a good appraisal will lead to organizational rewards; and that the rewards will satisfy the employee’s personal goals. This theory focuses on three relationships. 1. The effort-performance relationship is the probability perceived by the individual that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to performance. 2. The performance-rewards relationship is the degree to which an individual believes that performing at a particular level will lead to the attainment of a desired outcome. 3. The rewards-personal goals relationship is the degree to which the rewards of an organization satisfy an individual’s personal goals or needs and the attractiveness of those rewards. Individuele doelen Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 4

13 Vergeet niet dat motivatietheorieën cultuurgebonden zijn!
Behoeften- hiëarchie Prestatiedrang Most theories of motivation were developed in the United States by Americans and about Americans. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs argues that people start at the physiological level and move up the hierarchy in this order: physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization. This hierarchy aligns with American culture. In cultures where uncertainty avoidance characteristics are strong, security needs would be on top of the hierarchy. In cultures that score high on quality-of-life needs, social needs would be on top. The view that high achievement acts as an internal motivator presupposes two cultural characteristics: a willingness to accept a moderate degree of risk and a concern with performance. This combination is prevalent in Anglo American countries. Yet these characteristics are relatively absent in countries such as Chile or Portugal. Goal-setting theory is also culture bound. Its key components align reasonably well with U.S. culture. It assumes that subordinates will be reasonably independent, that managers and subordinates will seek challenging goals, and that performance is considered important by both. Goal-setting theory is not likely to increase motivation in countries in which the opposite conditions exist, such as Chile, France, and Portugal. Doelstellings- theorie Pearson Education, 2002 Hoofdstuk 4

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