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Johan F. Hoorn, 20021  -communication: Text  Informative text  Writing plan  Stylistics  Text structure  Tips.

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Presentatie over: "Johan F. Hoorn, 20021  -communication: Text  Informative text  Writing plan  Stylistics  Text structure  Tips."— Transcript van de presentatie:

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2 Johan F. Hoorn,  -communication: Text  Informative text  Writing plan  Stylistics  Text structure  Tips

3 Johan F. Hoorn, Informative text Make a writing plan: What are the needs of your audience? - to inform? - to entertain? - or both?

4 Johan F. Hoorn, Informative text Make a writing plan: What is your goal as a writer? - to report? - to persuade? - or both?

5 Johan F. Hoorn, Informative text Make a writing plan: What style will you need? - literal (man is a human being)? - metaphoric (man is a machine)? - or both?

6 Johan F. Hoorn, Informative text Make a writing plan: Do you want to arouse emotion? - positive? - negative? - or both?

7 Johan F. Hoorn, The writing plan Report Persuade Inform Entertain style emotion  literal  explanatory metaphor (conventional) indifferent which indifferent which + context violations  novel metaphor + context violations  positive  supportive  negative  obstructive  positive  supportive  negative  obstructive to audience needs Author goals Audience needs  literal  explanatory metaphor  novel metaphor

8 Johan F. Hoorn, Text structure - method - results - discussion - abstract - problem - theory In popular science, the structure is not fixed but depends on the goals and concerns of the audience

9 Johan F. Hoorn, Text structure - method - results - discussion - abstract - problem - theory  elaborate on real-world consequences  only what is relevant to audience needs  if spectacular or to understand results  explain (!), relate to real-world conseq.  other scientists on theory/method/results  social groups on (new) problem/results  NEVER USE JARGON!

10 Johan F. Hoorn, Explanatory metaphor quarks as building blocks Huang, K. (1992). Quarks, Leptons & Gauge Fields (p. 25). World Scientific, Singapore, New Jersey, London, Hong Kong. conventional metaphor

11 Johan F. Hoorn, lightning flash is a jelly-fish E. Westcott, Alaska University (October, 1993) C. Doswell novel metaphor

12 Johan F. Hoorn, Metaphor in popular science: Lightning flash is a jelly-fish Metaphor in serious science: Lightning flash is a channel of plasma

13 Johan F. Hoorn, The three-dimensional map (...) shows very clearly how the stability of atomic nuclei varies as the numbers of protons and neutrons increase. There is a “mountainous peninsula” of stability running diagonally across the map. In the lower part of the map, stable nuclei have roughly equal numbers of protons and neutrons. Further up, they have more neutrons. The mountain peaks are the so-called magic numbers - numbers of protons and neutrons producing the extra stable closed shells. Surrounding the peninsula is a sea of instability. At the far end, at atomic number 114 is the “island of stability” (...) Loveland, W., & Seaborg, G. (1991). The search for the missing elements. New Scientist, 131, 1784, Find the metaphors three-dimensional map mountainous peninsula mountain peaksmagic numbers shells.peninsulasea of instability island of stability

14 Johan F. Hoorn, Literal visualization Metaphoric visualization Metaphor links up with already known concepts - easier to understand Loveland, W., & Seaborg, G. (1991). The search for the missing elements. New Scientist, 131, 1784, 30.

15 Johan F. Hoorn, Contextual violation Why is this funny? In the context of bed, partner is expected, not cell-phone.

16 Johan F. Hoorn, Contextual violation A small girl with big blue eyes smiled and ran to the teacher to _____ her. spank A gangster with a nasty scar grinned and ran to the teacher to ___ her. kiss

17 Johan F. Hoorn, Persuasion: Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) Petty & Cacioppo (1986) ‘elaboration likelihood’: de waarschijnlijkheid dat iemand actief gaat nadenken over de argumenten in een boodschap 2 routes: centraal vs. perifeer

18 Johan F. Hoorn, persuasieve communicatie 1. motivatie tot verwerking? 2. bekwaamheid tot verwerking? 3. aard van de verwerking 4. verandering cogn. structuur? 5. attitudeverandering via centrale weg perifere attitudeverandering perifere prikkel aanwezig? geen attitudeverandering positiefnegatiefneutraal ja nee Elaboration Likelihood Model

19 Johan F. Hoorn, Kenmerken ELM Dual-process model Motivatie + capaciteit bepalen keuze Argumentkwaliteit vs. cue Verandering (stabiel, duurzaam) vs. (instabiel, kort) Bron is belangrijke cue (deskundige vs. bekende Nederlander vs. de buurman/vrouw) Subjectieve verwerking, –Voorkennis, bedreiging, waarschuwing vooraf Combinatie routes mogelijk

20 Johan F. Hoorn, Tips  Make an audience profile (age, gender, education, profession, religion)  Deduce audience needs from profile  Set your goals (inform, persuade)  Link goals to needs  Choose strategy from writing plan (stylistics and emotional impact)  Choose text structure, order follows high to low relevance to audience

21 Johan F. Hoorn, Assignment 1: Search Science Magazine for the paper Formation of Giant Planets by Fragmentation of Protoplanetary Disks by Mayer, Quinn, Wadsley, & Stadel

22 Johan F. Hoorn, Assignment 2: Search Nature for the paper High brightness electron beam from a multi-walled carbon nanotube by De Jonge, Lamy, Schoots, & Oosterkamp

23 Johan F. Hoorn, Assignment 3 Lees artikelen Science en Nature Thema is extreem groot vs. extreem klein Schrijf naar de ‘menselijke maat’ voor lezers van Intermediair (bv. ingenieurs, zakenlieden) Lees uittreksel APA Style Manual Behandel artikelen in S en N tezamen in één stuk (1 voor 1 mag, maar leg wel verbanden) Schrijf vier versies (2*A4 elk, Times 10, enkele interlinie) –APA, puur letterlijk, verbod op metaforen –APA, puur metaforisch, verbod op letterlijk –Zonder APA, kies standpunt, schrijf op overtuiging, alles toegestaan (ook onredelijkheid, cirkelredeneringen, nadruk op bijzaken, smakelijke verpakking) –APA, letterlijk, metaforisch en overtuiging evenwichtig gemengd  DEADLINE  voor vrijdag af Wat zijn de perifere cues in deze waarschuwing?


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