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Prof Dr. Hub Zwart Afdeling Filosofie & Wetenschapstudies Institute for Science, Innovation & Society Raboud Universiteit Nijmegen Geschiedenis van het.

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Presentatie over: "Prof Dr. Hub Zwart Afdeling Filosofie & Wetenschapstudies Institute for Science, Innovation & Society Raboud Universiteit Nijmegen Geschiedenis van het."— Transcript van de presentatie:

1 Prof Dr. Hub Zwart Afdeling Filosofie & Wetenschapstudies Institute for Science, Innovation & Society Raboud Universiteit Nijmegen Geschiedenis van het Proefdier Inleiding in de Filosofie en de Ethiek Voorjaar 2005 Bijeenkomst 2 – 22 april 2005

2 Wat is Filosofie? Filosofie: kritische (normatieve) discipline Wetenschap = object van onderzoek Wetenschapsfilosofie: kritisch onderzoek naar de betrouwbaarheid van menselijke kennis in het algemeen en wetenschappelijke kennis in het bijzonder Wetenschapsethiek: Omgang met proefpersonen, proefdieren, milieu, kennis, informatie, schaarse hulpbronnen, integriteit, maatschappelijke verantwoordelijkheid, etc.

3 PhysisAbiotische natuur KosmosConcepten ScheppingToegepaste Theologie UniversumClassificeren LandschapSamenhangende systemen (holistische benadering) WildernisEvolutie ReservoirBiodiversiteit

4 Aristoteles ( v Chr)

5 Aristoteles Natuur - Techniek Levend – Levenloos Warmbloedig – Koudbloedig Gewerveld – Ongewerveld Soort – Geslacht Anatomisch onderzoek

6 Aristotle “On Respiration” / “On the soul” “An animal with lungs, even a tortoise or a frog, if one holds it under water too long, it will be drowned. But it does not happen in the case of fishes, try as we will” “Respiring animals are suffocated if the air is small in quantity and remains the same” “Respiring animals are suffocated in water, and fishes in air”

7 René Descartes ( )

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9 William Harvey ( )

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11 William Harvey

12 Albrecht von Haller ( )

13 Johannes Peter Müller ( )

14 Claude Bernard ( )

15 Claude Bernard

16 Ivan Pavlov ( )

17 Ivan Pavlov

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22 Pavlov

23 “When I dissect and destroy a living animal, I hear within myself a bitter reproach that with rough and blundering hand I am crushing an incomparable artistic mechanism. But I endure this in the interest of truth, for the benefit of humanity” “We must painfully acknowledge that, precisely because of its great intellectual development, the best of man’s domesticated animals - the dog - most often becomes the victim of physiological experiments. It is extremely touching. The dog is almost a participant in the experiments conducted upon it, greatly facilitating the success of the research by its understanding and compliance”

24 Pavlov “This method was adopted as a result of a hint given by one of the dogs subjected to the operation. We (dr. Kuvshinski and I) gratefully acknowledge that by its manifestation of common sense the dog has helped us as well as itself”

25 Pavlov “I regard the promotion of our surgical technique to be a matter of greatest importance, because the usual method of simply vivisecting the animal in an acute experiment is, as is now becoming clearer day by day, a major source of error, since the act of crude violation of the organism is accompanied by a mass of inhibitory influences on the functions of the different organs. The organism as a whole, the realization of the most delicate and most expedient linking of an enormous number of separate parts, cannot, in the nature of things, remain passive to destructive agents”

26 Pavlov “The desire... to spare our experimental animals as much as possible made us stricktly observe all the precautions taken by surgeons in respect to their patients” “Our healthy and happy animals did their laboratory work with real gusto; they always rushed from their cages to the laboratory and readily jumped on the tables where our experiments and observations were conducted. Believe me I am not exaggerating a iota. Thanks to our surgical method in physiology we can demonstrate [phenomena of digestion] without a single scream from the animal undergoing the experiment”

27 “In almost all biological experiment, particularly in hormone research, the rat has made a place of honour for itself. Because of its cooperation, though involuntary, he has contributed to countless and important successes. I feel that I am not only fulfilling a debt of gratitude towards the rat but contributing something towards its rehabilitation and recognition by taking this opportunity to protest against the prejudice of the public towards these, my favourite test animals, and I would like to convert my readers from the abhorrence in which these really inoffensive little animals and their habits are so often held” Eugene Steinach

28 Pavlov “Pavlov cultivated the image of laboratory dogs that, after recovering from the surgical operations, led normal, ‘happy’ lives. The reality was somewhat different. Many dogs died and survivors usually developed fatal conditions...” “Whether or not they were happy and normal, they lived much longer than those consumed in acute experiments and this facilitated a relationship with experimental dogs that sometimes resembled that between pet and master” (Daniel Todes, 2002, p. 98).

29 Wistar-rat (Rattus Norvegicus)

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31 Immanuel Kant ( )

32 Kant “Handel zo dat je de ander niet alleen als middel gebruikt, maar altijd ook als moreel subject, als autonoom persoon respecteert”

33 Kant Antropocentrisme “Fiat experimentum in corpore vili” Instrumentele waarde - Intrinsieke waarde Autonomie-beginsel (toestemmingbeginsel, informed consent) Dieren hebben geen rechten, mensen wel plichten

34 Jeremy Bentham

35 Bentham Utilisme Zoveel mogelijk geluk voor zoveel mogelijk mensen Schadebeginsel “Can they suffer?”

36 Revival Wetenschapsethiek Informed Consent

37 Russell & Burch 1959 Vervang (Replace) Verminder (Reduce) Verfijn (Refine)

38 Dierexperimentencommissie

39 DEC Wet op de Dierproeven “Ongerief proefdier” versus “Maatschappelijk of wetenschappelijk belang” 3 V’s

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43 Eduardo Kac - Alba

44 Glowfish

45 Integriteit Intrinsieke waarde

46 Verslaving Een onderzoeksgroep wil het verband onderzoeken tussen traumatische jeugdervaringen (zoals emotionele verwaarlozing op jonge leeftijd) en de incidentie van verslaving aan alcohol of drugs. Daartoe willen ze gebruik maken van proefdieren. Het gaat om 40 ratten (20 ratten in de controle-conditie, 20 ratten in de experimentele conditie). De ratten in de controle-conditie groeien op bij hun moeder. Hun soortgenoten in de experimentele conditie worden op jonge leeftijd van hun moeder gescheiden. Wanneer de dieren volwassen zijn, worden ze in een speciale kooi geplaatst waar ze zich zelf met behulp van een pedaaltje alcohol of cocaïne kunnen toedienen. De hypothese is dat ratten in de experimentele conditie sneller verslaafd zullen raken dan ratten in de experimentele conditie. Na 3 weken worden de dieren gedood met het oog op anatomisch onderzoek van relevante hersengebieden. Ze leggen hun protocol voor aan de DEC en benadrukken het maatschappelijke belang van hun project. Verslaving is immers een ernstig (en kostbaar) maatschappelijk probleem. Ze vewachten dat hun onderzoek de mogelijkheden voor preventie zullen bevorderen.


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