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Bikinis Instigate Generalized Impatience in Intertemporal Choice

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1 Bikinis Instigate Generalized Impatience in Intertemporal Choice
Bram Van den Bergh, Siegfried Dewitte, & Luk Warlop JCR

2 Intertijdelijke keuze (1/3)
smaller sooner larger later smaller 1 dimensie; niet moeilijk om te kiezen 2 dimensies: moeilijke keuze larger sooner later ?

3 Intertijdelijke keuze (2/3)
Koop nu immediate gratification Spaar & koop later delayed gratification

4 Intertijdelijke keuze (3/3)
smaak: chocolate > apple immediate gratification gezond: apple > chocolate delayed gratification

5 Delay of gratification (Mischel & Ebbesen 1970)
Een kind krijgt het volgende dilemma: Direct een minder geprefereerde beloning 15 min wachten en een meer geprefereerde beloning nu 15 min minder voorkeur meer voorkeur

6 Fysieke nabijheid promoot ongeduld (Mischel & Ebbesen 1970)
Aanwezige beloningen (gemiddeld aantal minuten wachttijd voor de uitgestelde beloning) Geen Beide Uitgestelde Directe 11.29 1.03 4.87 5.72

7 Tijdelijke nabijheid promoot ongeduld
Fig. 1. Temporal discounting. (a) The basic, intuitive, and well-validated phenomenon of temporal discounting is that the subjective value of a reward declines monotonically as the reward is progressively delayed: all other things being equal, immediate rewards are worth more than delayed rewards. (b) Individuals may vary in their propensity to discount delayed rewards. Individuals who discount the future steeply are said to be impulsive; individuals who discount the future shallowly (giving the future greater relative weight) are said to be self-controlled. (c) Different mathematical models of temporal discounting have been proposed; exponential and hyperbolic discounting are shown. Exponential temporal discounting is described by the equation . Hyperbolic temporal discounting is governed by the equation . Large values of the discounting parameter K give the steepest curve (the most impulsive behaviour) in both cases. There is strong empirical support for the hyperbolic, not the exponential, discounting model; one critical difference in the predictions of these two models is the phenomenon of preference reversal, since hyperbolic discounting allows curves for different rewards to cross. (d) Preference reversal, illustrated for two hypothetical rewards. Given a choice between an early reward of value 0.6 and a later reward of value 1, hyperbolic discounting predicts that the larger reward will be chosen if the choice is made far in advance (towards the left of the graph). However, as time advances, there may come a time just before delivery of the small reward when the value of the small reward exceeds that of the large reward; preference reverses and the small reward is chosen. Figures adapted from Ainslie (1975) (and also published in Robbins et al. (2005)).

8 Tijdelijke nabijheid promoot ongeduld

9 Hyperbolische discounting
Subjective value in € (V) 10 k = 0.1 An increase in desire for water, food, heroin, nicotine is capable of engendering impatience (Loewenstein 1996) kD €10 V + = 1 5 0.2 ≤ k ≤ 1 7 14 21 28 Time delay in days (D)

10 Viscerale invloeden eerder later eerder later Nicotine deprivation increases impulsive choices for cigarettes (Field et al. 2006) Heroin deprivation increases impulsive choices for heroin (Giordano et al. 2002)

11 Good specificity Eerder onderzoek (Loewenstein 1996):
Ongeduld is specifiek tot de deprivatie “A hungry person, is likely to make short-sighted tradeoffs between immediate and delayed food. This present-orientation, however, applies only to goods that are associated with the visceral factor. A hungry person would probably make the same choices as a non-hungry person between immediate and delayed money (assuming that food cannot be purchased) or immediate and delayed sex.” sooner later sooner later sooner later sooner later

12 Good specificity? sooner later sooner later Nicotine deprivation increases impulsive choices for MONEY (Field et al. 2006) Heroin deprivation increases impulsive choices for MONEY (Giordano et al. 2002)

13 Algemeen beloningssysteem
Veel beloningen worden op dezelfde manier verwerkt in de hersenen (Camerer, Loewenstein & Prelec 2005) erotische stimuli activeren delen geassocieerd met drugs en geld beloningen (Aharon et al. 2001; Stark et al. 2005) Een algemeen systeem kunnen leiden tot niet-specifieke effecten Geinduceerde ongeduld is niet specifiek

14 Reinforcement Sensitivy Theory Gray 1981
Behavioral Approach System (BAS) Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) Responds to signals of reward signals of punishment Activation leads to approach behavior avoidance behavior

15 Verzadiging De respons op beloningen is afhankelijk van de tekortkomingen van een individu sooner later sooner later Als je rijk bent kan je beter discounten Verzadiging leidt tot geduld

16 Experimentele studies
Studie 1a & 1b Demonstratie van het effect sex cues leiden tot algemeen ongeduld (i.e. steeper discounting of monetary rewards) Studie 2 & 3 Onderliggende psychologische processen Geen effect Indien het “reward centre” ongevoelig is (studie 2 & 3) Na verzadiging (studie 3)

17 Studie 1a - procedure Onafhankelijke variabele
minder eerder meer later Onafhankelijke variabele Blootstelling aan sex cue Afhankelijke variabele Tijdelijke discounting geld

18 Studie 1a – onafhankelijke variabele
controle sex

19 Studie 1a – afhankelijke variabele
€15 nu = € ____ volgende [week/maand] 7.5 15 7 14 21 28 Time delay (in days) Subjective value in € Area under the discounting curve Oppervlakte onder de empirische discounting functie = mating van discounting (Myerson, Green & Warusawitharana 2001) Waarde tussen 0 (volledige discounting) en 1 (geen discounting)

20 Studie 1a - mood Happiness/sadness kan immediate gratification verklaren e.g., als je ongelukkig bent, kan je jezelf belonen om jezelf beter te voelen Mood: Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule PANAS (Watson, Clark, and Tellegen 1988)

21 Studie 1a - resultaten inhoud van advertenties:
F(1, 38) = 8.54, p < .01 mood NS aantrekkelijkheid van advertenties

22 Studie 1a - discussie Sexuele cues leiden tot ongeduldigheid
i.e., steilere discounting van geld beloningen

23 Studie 1b - doelstellingen
Repliceren 1a Alternatieve verklaring uitsluiten mere presence van anderen (Luo 2005) sexuele cues zonder personen

24 Studie 1b - procedure Onafhankelijke variabele Afhankelijke variabele
€15 nu = € ____ volgende [week/maand] Controle variabele Mood PANAS (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen 1988)

25 Studie 1b - resultaten kleding F(1, 64) = 8.61, p < .005 mood NS

26 Studie 1b - discussie Sexuele cues leiden tot ongeduldigheid
i.e., steilere discounting van geld beloningen Onafhankelijk van aanwezigheid van personen

27 Studie 2 - doelstellingen
Demonstreren van de rol van het algemeen beloningssysteem Uitsluiten afleidingsverklaring Minder cognitieve capaciteit Voorkeur voor directe beloning Zijn sexuele cues cognitief belastend?

28 Studie 2 – Algemeen beloningssysteem
Erotische stimuli activeren het menselijk beloningssysteem (Stark et al. 2005) Gevoeligheid voor beloningsstimuli kunne variëren tussen individuen (Carver and White 1994; Torrubia et al. 2001) Beloningsgevoeligheid zou het effect moeten modereren Gevoelig eerder later Ongevoelig eerder later

29 Studie 2 – moderator: SPSRQ (1)
Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire Odd items: Sensitivity to Punishment (BIS) & Even items: Sensitivity to Reward (BAS) (Torrubia, Avila, Moltó & Caseras 2001) Do you often refrain from doing something because you are afraid of it being illegal? Does the good prospect of obtaining money motivate you strongly to do some things? Do you prefer not to ask for something when you are not sure you will obtain it? Are you frequently encouraged to act by the possibility of being valued in your work, in your studies, with your friends or with your family? Are you often afraid of new or unexpected situations? Do you often meet people that you find physically attractive? Is it difficult for you to telephone someone you do not know? Do you like to take some drugs because of the pleasure you get from them? Do you often renounce your rights when you know you can avoid a quarrel with a person or an organisation? Do you often do things to be praised? As a child, were you troubled by punishments at home or in school? Do you like being the centre of attention at a party or a social meeting? In tasks that you are not prepared for, do you attach great importance to the possibility of failure? Do you spend a lot of your time on obtaining a good image? Are you easily discouraged in difficult situations? Do you need people to show their affection for you all the time? Are you a shy person? When you are in a group, do you try to make your opinions the most intelligent or the funniest? Whenever possible, do you avoid demonstrating your skills for fear of being embarrassed? Do you often take the opportunity to pick up people you find attractive? When you are with a group, do you have diculties selecting a good topic to talk about? As a child, did you do a lot of things to get people's approval? Is it often difficult for you to fall asleep when you think about things you have done or must do? Does the possibility of social advancement, move you to action, even if this involves not playing fair?

30 SPSRQ (2) Do you think a lot before complaining in a restaurant if your meal is not well prepared? Do you generally give preference to those activities that imply an immediate gain? Would you be bothered if you had to return to a store when you noticed you were given the wrong change? Do you often have trouble resisting the temptation of doing forbidden things? Whenever you can, do you avoid going to unknown places? Do you like to compete and do everything you can to win? Are you often worried by things that you said or did? Is it easy for you to associate tastes and smells to very pleasant events? Would it be difficult for you to ask your boss for a raise (salary increase)? Are there a large number of objects or sensations that remind you of pleasant events? Do you generally try to avoid speaking in public? When you start to play with a slot machine, is it often dicult for you to stop? Do you, on a regular basis, think that you could do more things if it was not for your insecurity or fear? Do you sometimes do things for quick gains? Comparing yourself to people you know, are you afraid of many things? Does your attention easily stray from your work in the presence of an attractive stranger? Do you often find yourself worrying about things to the extent that performance in intellectual abilities is impaired? Are you interested in money to the point of being able to do risky jobs? Do you often refrain from doing something you like in order not to be rejected or disapproved of by others? Do you like to put competitive ingredients in all of your activities? Generally, do you pay more attention to threats than to pleasant events? Would you like to be a socially powerful person? Do you often refrain from doing something because of your fear of being embarrassed? Do you like displaying your physical abilities even though this may involve danger?

31 Studie 2 - Remote Associates Test (Mednick 1962)
RAT = Cognitieve test voor meting van creativiteit 15 seconden om een woord te vinden dat gerelateerd is aan 3 van de originele woorden Ahankelijke variabele Performantie op 5 RAT vragen lepel snel munt ZILVER schaduw blad groot BOOM bloem wijzerplaat kleding ZON

32 Studie 2 - Remote Associates Test (Mednick 1962)
Twee mogelijkheden Indien sex cues “afleiden” slechte performantie op RAT Indien sex cues “belonen” goede performantie op RAT Sex cues promoten creativiteit (Griskevicius et al. 2006) Erotische stimuli activateren het ‘human reward circuitry’ (Stark et al. 2005) Activatie van het ‘reward circuitry’ verhoogt creativiteit (Eisenberger, Armeli, and Pretz 1998) Gevoeligheid voor beloningssstimuli varieert tussen individuen (Torrubia et al. 2001) RAT performantie zou hoger moeten zijn voor ‘reward sensitive’ individuen na sex cues

33 Studie 2 – controle commercial

34 Studie 2 – sexy commercial

35 Studie 2 - procedure Onafhankelijke variabele Controle variabele
Mood PANAS (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen 1988) Afhankelijke variabelen €15 nu = € ____ volgende [week/maand] 5 “RAT” vragen moderator variabele Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (alpha = .71) (Torrubia et al. 2001)

36 Studie 2 – discounting resultaten
Delay discounting Commercial, F(1, 112) = 5.14, p < .05 Sensitivity for Reward, F(1, 112) = 11.43, p < .005 Commercial * Sensitivity for Reward, F(1, 112) = 6.40, p < .05 controle conditie rdiscounting, SR = -.08, NS sex cue condition rdiscounting, SR = -.48, p < .0001 Affect, NS Visualiseren effect: median split on ‘reward sensitivity’ Negatieve correlatie: grotere gevoeligheid  kleiner oppervlakte ; dus impulsiever na sex cues

37 Studie 2 – discounting resultaten

38 Studie 2 – RAT resultaten
RAT performantie Commercial, F(1, 116) = 4.07, p < .05. Sensitivity for Reward, F(1, 116) = 1.32, p = .25, Commercial * Sensitivity for Reward, F(1, 116) = 4.60, p < .05 control condition rRATperformance, SR = -.09, NS sex cue condition rRATperformance, SR = .29, p < .05

39 Study 2 – RAT results

40 Studie 2 - discussie Sexuele cues leiden tot ongeduld
i.e., steilere discounting van geld beloningen Effect is gemodereerd door reward sensitivity Onafhankelijk van afleiding / cognitieve belasting (Shiv & Fedorikhin 1999)

41 Studie 3 - doelstellingen
Veralgemening naar andere beloningen Effect “dampens” na verzadiging Replicatie studie 2 effect gemodereerd door reward sensitivity

42 Studie 3 – doelstelling 1 Behavioral Approach System eerder later

43 Studie 3 – doelstelling 1 Rol van ‘general reward system’:
Veralgemening naar niet-monetaire beloningen Uitsluiten verklaring in termen van partner aantrekking Mannen; materiële rijkdom en sociale status wordt belangrijker (Roney 2003) Beloning ≠ geld i.e. snoep, frisdrank €15 nu = € ____ volgende [week/maand] 15 frisdranklollies nu = ____ frisdranklollies volgende [week/maand] 15 snoeprepen today = ____ snoeprepen volgende [week/maand]

44 Studie 3 – doelstelling 2 Effect “dampens” na verzadiging
Verzadiging leidt tot verbeterde capiciteiten in delaying gratification (Giordano et al. 2002; Kirk and Logue 1997) sooner later

45 Studie 3 – doelstelling 2 Deelnemers geven aan hoeveel geld ze bezitten op 9-punten schaal (Nelson & Morrisson 2005) Ontbering: 1 (€0 – €500) tot 9 (meer dan €400,000) Meestal het midden Gevoel van “armoede” of “ontbering” Verzadiging: 1 (€0 – €50) tot 9 (meer dan €400) Meestal 9 Gevoel van “rijkdom” of “verzadiging” eerder later eerder later ontbering verzadiging

46 Studie 3 – doelstelling 2 Algemeen beloningssysteem Geld ontbering
sex-cue → steilere discounting Geld verzadiging sex-cue → scherpere discounting eerder later eerder later sex geld niet-monetaire beloning

47 Studie 3 – doelstelling 3 Replicatie studie 2
BAS Reward Responsiveness (Carver & White 1994) When I get something I want, I feel excited and energized. When I'm doing well at something, I love to keep at it. When good things happen to me, it affects me strongly. It would excite me to win a contest. When I see an opportunity for something I like, I get excited right away. eerder later eerder later eerder later

48 Studie 3 - procedure Onafhankelijke variabele 1
Verzadiging – ontbering (Nelson & Morrisson, 2005) controle variabele Mood Afhankelijke variabele 15 [€ / snoepjes / frisdrank] nu = ____ volgende [week/maand] moderator variabele Reward responsiveness (Carver & White 1994)

49 Studie 3 - resultaten Mood: NS
Oppervlakte onder de curve voor elke “reward” geld, frisdranklollies, snoeprepen Factoren Kleding (T-shirt, bra) (dichotomous) Motivatie (verzadiging, ontbering) (dichotomous) Reward Responsiveness (BASr) (continuous) Resultaten 3-wegs interactie Motivatie*Kleding*BASr, F(1, 112) = 5.81, p=.0176

50 Studie 3 - resultaten Sex Controle
Correlaties tussen Reward Responsiveness en delay discounting van de verschillende beloningen Sex Controle Ontbering Verzadiging Ontbering Verzadiging Geld -0,45* -0,17 0,02 -0,26 Snoep -0,35* 0,21 0,17 -0,03 Frsidrank -0,38* 0,16 0,05 0,04 Gemiddelde -0,46** 0,1 0,11 -0,09 * p < 0,05; ** p < 0,01

51 Studie 3 – resultaten discounting alle rewards

52 Studie 3 – resultaten discounting frisdranklollies

53 Studie 3 – resultaten discounting snoeprepen

54 Studie 3 – resultaten discounting geld

55 Studie 3 - discussie Sexuele cues leiden tot ongeduld
i.e., steilere discounting van geld beloningen Effect is gemodereerd door reward sensitivity verzadiging

56 Samengevat 15 advertisements 1-min commercial clothing item
later sooner 15 advertisements 1-min commercial clothing item sensitivity to reward satiation money candy soda Alternative explanations mate attraction (Roney 2003) mood / arousal (Rook and Gardner 1993; Tice et al. 2001) presence of individuals (Luo 2005) cognitive load (Hinson et al. 2003; Shiv and Fedorikhin 1999) attractiveness of ads (Wilson and Daly 2004)

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