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Bikinis Instigate Generalized Impatience in Intertemporal Choice Bram Van den Bergh, Siegfried Dewitte, & Luk Warlop JCR.

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Presentatie over: "Bikinis Instigate Generalized Impatience in Intertemporal Choice Bram Van den Bergh, Siegfried Dewitte, & Luk Warlop JCR."— Transcript van de presentatie:

1 Bikinis Instigate Generalized Impatience in Intertemporal Choice Bram Van den Bergh, Siegfried Dewitte, & Luk Warlop JCR

2 Intertijdelijke keuze (1/3) smaller sooner larger later soonerlater smallerlarger ?

3 Intertijdelijke keuze (2/3) Koop nu immediate gratification Spaar & koop later delayed gratification

4 Intertijdelijke keuze (3/3) smaak: chocolate > apple immediate gratification gezond: apple > chocolate delayed gratification

5 Delay of gratification (Mischel & Ebbesen 1970) Een kind krijgt het volgende dilemma: –Direct een minder geprefereerde beloning –15 min wachten en een meer geprefereerde beloning nu15 min minder voorkeur meer voorkeur

6 Fysieke nabijheid promoot ongeduld (Mischel & Ebbesen 1970) Aanwezige beloningen ( gemiddeld aantal minuten wachttijd voor de uitgestelde beloning) GeenBeideUitgesteldeDirecte

7 Tijdelijke nabijheid promoot ongeduld


9 Hyperbolische discounting 10 0 5 07142128 Time delay in days (D) Subjective value in € (V) kD €10 V + = 1 k = 0.1 0.2 ≤ k ≤ 1 An increase in desire for water, food, heroin, nicotine is capable of engendering impatience (Loewenstein 1996)

10 Viscerale invloeden eerderlater Nicotine deprivation increases impulsive choices for cigarettes (Field et al. 2006) Heroin deprivation increases impulsive choices for heroin (Giordano et al. 2002) eerderlater

11 Good specificity Eerder onderzoek ( Loewenstein 1996) : Ongeduld is specifiek tot de deprivatie “A hungry person, is likely to make short-sighted tradeoffs between immediate and delayed food. This present-orientation, however, applies only to goods that are associated with the visceral factor. A hungry person would probably make the same choices as a non-hungry person between immediate and delayed money (assuming that food cannot be purchased) or immediate and delayed sex.” soonerlatersoonerlater soonerlatersoonerlater

12 Good specificity? soonerlater Nicotine deprivation increases impulsive choices for MONEY (Field et al. 2006) Heroin deprivation increases impulsive choices for MONEY (Giordano et al. 2002) soonerlater

13 Algemeen beloningssysteem Veel beloningen worden op dezelfde manier verwerkt in de hersenen (Camerer, Loewenstein & Prelec 2005) –erotische stimuli activeren delen geassocieerd met drugs en geld beloningen (Aharon et al. 2001; Stark et al. 2005) Een algemeen systeem kunnen leiden tot niet-specifieke effecten –Geinduceerde ongeduld is niet specifiek

14 Reinforcement Sensitivy Theory Gray 1981 Activation leads to Responds to avoidance behavior signals of punishmentsignals of reward Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) Behavioral Approach System (BAS) approach behavior

15 Verzadiging De respons op beloningen is afhankelijk van de tekortkomingen van een individu soonerlatersoonerlater

16 Experimentele studies Studie 1a & 1b –Demonstratie van het effect sex cues leiden tot algemeen ongeduld (i.e. steeper discounting of monetary rewards) Studie 2 & 3 –Onderliggende psychologische processen Geen effect –Indien het “reward centre” ongevoelig is (studie 2 & 3) –Na verzadiging (studie 3)

17 Studie 1a - procedure minder eerder meer later Onafhankelijke variabele Blootstelling aan sex cue Afhankelijke variabele Tijdelijke discounting geld

18 Studie 1a – onafhankelijke variabele controlesex

19 Studie 1a – afhankelijke variabele Oppervlakte onder de empirische discounting functie = mating van discounting (Myerson, Green & Warusawitharana 2001) Waarde tussen 0 (volledige discounting) en 1 (geen discounting) €15 nu = € ____ volgende [week/maand] 0 7.5 15 07142128 Time delay (in days) Subjective value in € Area under the discounting curve

20 Studie 1a - mood Happiness/sadness kan immediate gratification verklaren –e.g., als je ongelukkig bent, kan je jezelf belonen om jezelf beter te voelen Mood: Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule –PANAS (Watson, Clark, and Tellegen 1988)

21 Studie 1a - resultaten inhoud van advertenties : F(1, 38) = 8.54, p <.01 mood NS aantrekkelijkheid van advertenties NS

22 Studie 1a - discussie Sexuele cues leiden tot ongeduldigheid –i.e., steilere discounting van geld beloningen

23 Studie 1b - doelstellingen 1.Repliceren 1a 2.Alternatieve verklaring uitsluiten –mere presence van anderen (Luo 2005) sexuele cues zonder personen

24 Studie 1b - procedure Onafhankelijke variabele Afhankelijke variabele €15 nu = € ____ volgende [week/maand] Controle variabele Mood PANAS (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen 1988)

25 Studie 1b - resultaten kleding F(1, 64) = 8.61, p <.005 mood NS

26 Studie 1b - discussie Sexuele cues leiden tot ongeduldigheid –i.e., steilere discounting van geld beloningen Onafhankelijk van aanwezigheid van personen

27 Studie 2 - doelstellingen 1.Demonstreren van de rol van het algemeen beloningssysteem 2.Uitsluiten afleidingsverklaring Minder cognitieve capaciteit Voorkeur voor directe beloning Zijn sexuele cues cognitief belastend?

28 OngevoeligGevoelig Studie 2 – Algemeen beloningssysteem Erotische stimuli activeren het menselijk beloningssysteem (Stark et al. 2005) Gevoeligheid voor beloningsstimuli kunne variëren tussen individuen (Carver and White 1994; Torrubia et al. 2001) Beloningsgevoeligheid zou het effect moeten modereren eerderlatereerderlater

29 Studie 2 – moderator: SPSRQ (1) 1.Do you often refrain from doing something because you are afraid of it being illegal? 2.Does the good prospect of obtaining money motivate you strongly to do some things? 3.Do you prefer not to ask for something when you are not sure you will obtain it? 4.Are you frequently encouraged to act by the possibility of being valued in your work, in your studies, with your friends or with your family? 5.Are you often afraid of new or unexpected situations? 6.Do you often meet people that you find physically attractive? 7.Is it difficult for you to telephone someone you do not know? 8.Do you like to take some drugs because of the pleasure you get from them? 9.Do you often renounce your rights when you know you can avoid a quarrel with a person or an organisation? 10.Do you often do things to be praised? 11.As a child, were you troubled by punishments at home or in school? 12.Do you like being the centre of attention at a party or a social meeting? 13.In tasks that you are not prepared for, do you attach great importance to the possibility of failure? 14.Do you spend a lot of your time on obtaining a good image? 15.Are you easily discouraged in difficult situations? 16.Do you need people to show their affection for you all the time? 17.Are you a shy person? 18.When you are in a group, do you try to make your opinions the most intelligent or the funniest? 19.Whenever possible, do you avoid demonstrating your skills for fear of being embarrassed? 20.Do you often take the opportunity to pick up people you find attractive? 21.When you are with a group, do you have diculties selecting a good topic to talk about? 22.As a child, did you do a lot of things to get people's approval? 23.Is it often difficult for you to fall asleep when you think about things you have done or must do? 24.Does the possibility of social advancement, move you to action, even if this involves not playing fair? Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire Odd items: Sensitivity to Punishment (BIS) & Even items: Sensitivity to Reward (BAS) (Torrubia, Avila, Moltó & Caseras 2001)

30 SPSRQ (2) 25.Do you think a lot before complaining in a restaurant if your meal is not well prepared? 26.Do you generally give preference to those activities that imply an immediate gain? 27.Would you be bothered if you had to return to a store when you noticed you were given the wrong change? 28.Do you often have trouble resisting the temptation of doing forbidden things? 29.Whenever you can, do you avoid going to unknown places? 30.Do you like to compete and do everything you can to win? 31.Are you often worried by things that you said or did? 32.Is it easy for you to associate tastes and smells to very pleasant events? 33.Would it be difficult for you to ask your boss for a raise (salary increase)? 34.Are there a large number of objects or sensations that remind you of pleasant events? 35.Do you generally try to avoid speaking in public? 36.When you start to play with a slot machine, is it often dicult for you to stop? 37.Do you, on a regular basis, think that you could do more things if it was not for your insecurity or fear? 38.Do you sometimes do things for quick gains? 39.Comparing yourself to people you know, are you afraid of many things? 40.Does your attention easily stray from your work in the presence of an attractive stranger? 41.Do you often find yourself worrying about things to the extent that performance in intellectual abilities is impaired? 42.Are you interested in money to the point of being able to do risky jobs? 43.Do you often refrain from doing something you like in order not to be rejected or disapproved of by others? 44.Do you like to put competitive ingredients in all of your activities? 45.Generally, do you pay more attention to threats than to pleasant events? 46.Would you like to be a socially powerful person? 47.Do you often refrain from doing something because of your fear of being embarrassed? 48.Do you like displaying your physical abilities even though this may involve danger?

31 Studie 2 - Remote Associates Test (Mednick 1962) RAT = Cognitieve test voor meting van creativiteit –15 seconden om een woord te vinden dat gerelateerd is aan 3 van de originele woorden Ahankelijke variabele –Performantie op 5 RAT vragen ZILVERlepelsnelmunt BOOMschaduwbladgroot ZONbloem wijzerplaat kleding

32 Studie 2 - Remote Associates Test (Mednick 1962) Twee mogelijkheden –Indien sex cues “afleiden” slechte performantie op RAT –Indien sex cues “belonen” goede performantie op RAT Sex cues promoten creativiteit (Griskevicius et al. 2006) –Erotische stimuli activateren het ‘human reward circuitry’ (Stark et al. 2005) –Activatie van het ‘reward circuitry’ verhoogt creativiteit (Eisenberger, Armeli, and Pretz 1998) Gevoeligheid voor beloningssstimuli varieert tussen individuen (Torrubia et al. 2001) –RAT performantie zou hoger moeten zijn voor ‘reward sensitive’ individuen na sex cues

33 Studie 2 – controle commercial

34 Studie 2 – sexy commercial

35 Studie 2 - procedure Onafhankelijke variabele Controle variabele Mood PANAS (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen 1988) Afhankelijke variabelen €15 nu = € ____ volgende [week/maand] 5 “RAT” vragen moderator variabele Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (alpha =.71) (Torrubia et al. 2001)

36 Studie 2 – discounting resultaten Delay discounting –Commercial, F(1, 112) = 5.14, p <.05 –Sensitivity for Reward, F(1, 112) = 11.43, p <.005 –Commercial * Sensitivity for Reward, F(1, 112) = 6.40, p <.05 controle conditie r discounting, SR = -.08, NS sex cue condition r discounting, SR = -.48, p <.0001 Affect, NS Visualiseren effect: median split on ‘reward sensitivity’

37 Studie 2 – discounting resultaten

38 Studie 2 – RAT resultaten RAT performantie –Commercial, F(1, 116) = 4.07, p <.05. –Sensitivity for Reward, F(1, 116) = 1.32, p =.25, –Commercial * Sensitivity for Reward, F(1, 116) = 4.60, p <.05 control condition –r RATperformance, SR = -.09, NS sex cue condition –r RATperformance, SR =.29, p <.05

39 Study 2 – RAT results

40 Studie 2 - discussie Sexuele cues leiden tot ongeduld –i.e., steilere discounting van geld beloningen Effect is gemodereerd door reward sensitivity Onafhankelijk van –afleiding / cognitieve belasting (Shiv & Fedorikhin 1999)

41 Studie 3 - doelstellingen 1.Veralgemening naar andere beloningen 2.Effect “dampens” na verzadiging 3.Replicatie studie 2 effect gemodereerd door reward sensitivity

42 Studie 3 – doelstelling 1 Behavioral Approach System eerderlatereerderlatereerderlater

43 Studie 3 – doelstelling 1 Rol van ‘general reward system’: –Veralgemening naar niet-monetaire beloningen Uitsluiten verklaring in termen van partner aantrekking –Mannen; materiële rijkdom en sociale status wordt belangrijker (Roney 2003) –Beloning ≠ geld i.e. snoep, frisdrank €15 nu = € ____ volgende [week/maand] 15 frisdranklollies nu = ____ frisdranklollies volgende [week/maand] 15 snoeprepen today = ____ snoeprepen volgende [week/maand]

44 Studie 3 – doelstelling 2 Effect “dampens” na verzadiging –Verzadiging leidt tot verbeterde capiciteiten in delaying gratification (Giordano et al. 2002; Kirk and Logue 1997) soonerlater

45 Studie 3 – doelstelling 2 Deelnemers geven aan hoeveel geld ze bezitten op 9-punten schaal (Nelson & Morrisson 2005) –Ontbering: 1 (€0 – €500) tot 9 (meer dan €400,000) –Meestal het midden –Gevoel van “armoede” of “ontbering” –Verzadiging: 1 (€0 – €50) tot 9 (meer dan €400) –Meestal 9 –Gevoel van “rijkdom” of “verzadiging” eerderlatereerderlater verzadigingontbering

46 Studie 3 – doelstelling 2 Algemeen beloningssysteem –Geld ontbering sex-cue → steilere discounting –Geld verzadiging sex-cue → scherpere discounting sexgeldniet-monetaire beloning eerder later eerder later

47 Studie 3 – doelstelling 3 Replicatie studie 2 BAS Reward Responsiveness (Carver & White 1994) 1.When I get something I want, I feel excited and energized. 2.When I'm doing well at something, I love to keep at it. 3.When good things happen to me, it affects me strongly. 4.It would excite me to win a contest. 5.When I see an opportunity for something I like, I get excited right away. eerderlatereerderlatereerderlater

48 Studie 3 - procedure Onafhankelijke variabele 1 controle variabele Mood Afhankelijke variabele 15 [€ / snoepjes / frisdrank] nu = ____ volgende [week/maand] moderator variabele Reward responsiveness (Carver & White 1994) Onafhankelijke variabele 2 Verzadiging – ontbering (Nelson & Morrisson, 2005)

49 Studie 3 - resultaten Mood: NS Oppervlakte onder de curve voor elke “reward” –geld, frisdranklollies, snoeprepen Factoren –Kleding (T-shirt, bra) (dichotomous) –Motivatie (verzadiging, ontbering) (dichotomous) –Reward Responsiveness (BASr) (continuous) Resultaten –3-wegs interactie Motivatie*Kleding*BASr, F(1, 112) = 5.81, p=.0176

50 Studie 3 - resultaten * p < 0,05; ** p < 0,01 -0,090,110,1-0,46** Gemiddelde 0,040,050,16-0,38* Frsidrank -0,030,170,21-0,35* Snoep -0,260,02-0,17-0,45* Geld VerzadigingOntberingVerzadigingOntbering ControleSex Correlaties tussen Reward Responsiveness en delay discounting van de verschillende beloningen

51 Studie 3 – resultaten discounting alle rewards

52 Studie 3 – resultaten discounting frisdranklollies

53 Studie 3 – resultaten discounting snoeprepen

54 Studie 3 – resultaten discounting geld

55 Studie 3 - discussie Sexuele cues leiden tot ongeduld –i.e., steilere discounting van geld beloningen Effect is gemodereerd door –reward sensitivity –verzadiging

56 Samengevat 15 advertisements 1-min commercial clothing item money candy soda sensitivity to reward satiation Alternative explanations –mate attraction (Roney 2003) –mood / arousal (Rook and Gardner 1993; Tice et al. 2001) –presence of individuals (Luo 2005) –cognitive load (Hinson et al. 2003; Shiv and Fedorikhin 1999) –attractiveness of ads (Wilson and Daly 2004) sooner later

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