Presentatie over: "Workshop Mind the Gap an introduction to Academic English for vwo 6 –"— Transcript van de presentatie:
1Workshop Mind the Gapan introduction to Academic English for vwo 6 –oorzaak & gevolg:
2Aanleiding onderzoek Zeven jaar Tweede Fase, een balans IOWO – aansluitingsmonitoronderzoekenProfielcommissie: Bruggen tussen Natuur en Maatschappij:SLOA-aanvraag LEVENDE TALEN
3Of zoals de Spits meldde: I hate you all welcome....
4Advies Profielcommissies: Start aansluitingsprojecten voor het vak Engels met sectoren in het hoger onderwijs, waar ontevredenheid over het beheersingsniveau van de Engelse taal van de studenten bestaat.Verhelder welke onderdelen van de taalvaardigheid bij de diverse vervolgopleidingen belangrijk zijn en speel daar in het voortgezet onderwijs op in.
5Het Europees Referentiekader Ontwikkelingen in talenonderwijsAccent verschuift van taalkennis naar taalgebruik: van ‘kennen’ naar ‘kunnen’Meer taakgericht: Wat moet iemand kunnen? Welke kennis is nodig om dat te kunnen?Competentiegericht leren: competentie = kennis + vaardigheid + attitude
6ERK-niveaus VWO leerling eind V6 B2 LuisterenIk kan een langer betoog en lezingen begrijpen en zelfs complexe redeneringen volgen, wanneer het onderwerp redelijk vertrouwd is. Ik kan de meeste nieuws- en actualiteitenprogramma’s op de tv begrijpen. Ik kan het grootste deel van films in standaarddialect begrijpen.B2 LezenIk kan artikelen en verslagen lezen die betrekking hebben op eigentijdse problemen, waarbij de schrijvers een bepaalde houding of standpunt innemen. Ik kan eigentijds literair proza begrijpen.
7Vervolg ERK-niveaus V6 leerling B2 productie (spreken)Ik kan duidelijke, gedetailleerde beschrijvingen presenteren over een breed scala van onderwerpen die betrekking hebben op mijn interessegebied. Ik kan een standpunt over een actueel onderwerp verklaren en de voordelen en nadelen van diverse opties uiteenzetten.B2 interactie (gesprekken voeren)Ik kan zodanig deelnemen aan een vloeiend en spontaan gesprek, dat normale uitwisseling met moedertaalsprekers redelijk mogelijk is. Ik kan binnen een vertrouwde context actief deelnemen aan een discussie en hierin mijn standpunten uitleggen en ondersteunen.
8Tot slot: schrijven B2 Schrijven Ik kan een duidelijke, gedetailleerde tekst schrijven over een breed scala van onderwerpen die betrekking hebben op mijn interesses. Ik kan een opstel of verslag schrijven, informatie doorgeven of redenen aanvoeren ter ondersteuning voor of tegen een specifiek standpunt. Ik kan brieven schrijven waarin ik het persoonlijk belang van gebeurtenissen en ervaringen aangeef.
9Onderzoeksresultaten focusgroep: docenten Vu/UvA B2 goed startniveau in BachelorfaseB2 moet naar C1 groeien voor Masterfaseinformeel taalgebruik studenten in ordeabstractieniveau 1e jaars vaak te laagschrijfvaardigheid vaak onvoldoendewoordenschat onvoldoende academisch registerUniversiteiten dragen ook verantwoordelijkheid door invoering TTO
10Aanbevelingen universitair docenten meer aandacht voor formele taal op vomeer aandacht voor productieve vaardigheden op voleerlingen laten kennismaken met academische tekstendocenten Engels samenwerking laten zoeken bij andere vakkengerichter hulp bieden bij reeds beschikbare tools on-line voor verwerven academische vaardigheden in het Engels, ook op de universiteit zelf
11Bevindingen 1e jaars studenten Zeer wisselend beeld eigen inschatting ERK-niveau, van B1 tot C2 (!)met name inschatting schrijven lijkt onjuistop school veel aandacht voor grammatica en lezenlage scores op school voor luisteren en gesprekken voerenin Bachelor fase vrijwel alleen Engels lezenpresenteren & debatteren in het Engels meest genoemd als onvoldoende vaardigheid
12Aanbevelingen 1e jaars studenten minder Jip & Janneke taal in vwo schoolboekenin V5, V6 geen brieven schrijven maar betoog over wetenschappelijk onderwerpEngels koppelen aan andere vakken: geeft realistischer beeld voor studiemeer lessen lees- en schrijfvaardigheidmeer oefenen door doen (!)
13Peiling IOWO – april 2008studenten kennen zichzelf voldoende capaciteiten toe bij verlaten vwo (zelfoverschatting?)maar: op Universiteit beroep op leesvaardigheid van andere orde van grootteonvoorziene langere verwerkingstijd (planningproblematiek)specialistisch taalgebruik
15Aims: we would like to... Increase awareness of academic genres Increase skills in reading/writing academic textsIncrease level of study skillsAim of the presentation:dissemination of materials retrievable from
16Indeling website: www.mindthegap.slo.nl LesmodulenMaterialenbankScaffoldingOnderzoek en beleidLinksInfo
17Five stages – scaffolding the process step 1: engagementstep 2: building knowledgestep 3: transformationstep 4: presentationstep 5: reflection
18Time schedule – a suggestion Lesson 1 (approx. 50 minutes) engagement – definition Academic English/what is each of you going to study + activity 1: genresLesson 2 (approx. 50 minutes): engagement rounding off genres + first dictogloss + INTRODUCTION ESSAY TITLES / orientation on background infoLesson 3 (approx 50 minutes): building knowledge text reconstruction + second dictoglossLesson 4 (approx 50 minutes): building knowledge academic word generator (homework study words) + start joint writing (homework sentences)Lesson 5 (approx 50 minutes): check homework + time to discuss progress on gathering background info essay titlesLesson 6 (approx 50 minutes) how to use a thesaurus+ third dictoglossLesson 7 (approx. 50 minutes) how to use sources, quotations, references, bibliographyLesson 8 – presentation end results / SE – evaluation of various activities
19Engagement step 1 – activity 1 (activeren voorkennis aanwezig in de klas) what is each of you going to study? If you don’t know yet, take a study in mind.class inventory – table on blackboard see materialenbank/engagement(names studies/names students/names universities/gap year?/ etc.)what do you know about the amount of English used at that university/for that type of study?how can you find out, if you have no idea?
20Engagement activity 1 variation a: – without computers Explain SE involves writing an academic essay!What is ‘’academic’’? what is ‘’academic English’’?brainstorm in class – group workpossibilities:a) definitions on blackboardb) definitions on roll of wall paper to be stuck to one wall of the classroom> build up a WORD BANK during this project or make a file onstudents also take notes –to be kept for the final stage (reflection).
21Engagement activity 1 variation b: - with computers what is ‘Academic English’ ?brainstorm in classtake notes – these must be kept for the final stage (reflection).go to the following website and take the Sylvia Plath test (second half of the page):
22Samples of definitions academic (THEORETICAL) Show phonetics adjective theoretical and not related to practical effects in real life: a purely academic argument/question (retrieved from: )Definition of academic (adjective) describing school and university activities; educated; scholastic(retrieved from: )Academic English is much more than conversational English. To be successful in classes that are conducted completely in English, students need to be able to read large amounts of academic material in English, understand lectures given in English, think critically about the ideas they have read and heard, and express their understandings and critiques of ideas through speaking and writing in English.(retrieved from: )
23Engagement activity 2 - focus on genres begripsvorming presenting different genres: pair workmaterialenbank/engagement activity 2give out sample texts a.o. set of written instructions, (tv) news, lesson fragment, joke, scientific definition, paragraph from academic article, etc.find out which text is which genre – you have approx. 10 minutes to do this.N.B. different sets per group.
24Sample genres – excerpts: complete sets or fragments available on website text 1Amputees can feel relief from phantom limb pain just by watching someone else rub their hands together, a study says. The treatment appears to fool the brain that it is their missing hand being massaged, California researchers say. New Scientist magazine reports that it harnesses nerve cells in the brain which become active when watching someone else carry out an action. UK experts said this kind of therapy may help amputees, as long as they can go along with the illusion.text 2A schoolteacher asked her primary six class to construct sentences with the words: defeat, detail, defense.There was a pause before a pupil raised his hand and said he could make a sentence with them: "The cow jumped over defense and detail went over defeat."text 3 “But he has nothing on at all,” said a little child at last. “Good heavens! listen to the voice of an innocent child,” said the father, and one whispered to the other what the child had said. “But he has nothing on at all,” cried at last the whole people.text 4How To Do It:1. Take an egg from the fridge and place it in the egg cup in the centre of the table.2. Switch on the radio or hifi and turn it up to a comfortable volume.
25Engagement (activity 2 cont Engagement (activity 2 cont.): genres and their features begripsvorming tekstkenmerkenMake use of the matrix on the following page/slideWhich text shows which features?N.B. This matrix comes from Scaffolding language, scaffolding learning, Pauline Gibbons, (2002), p. 58
26other language features type of textrecount‘what I did at the weekend’’narrative‘Jack and Beanstalk’’report‘Insects’’procedure‘how to boil an egg’’discussion(one side)argument(two sides)‘should smoking be banned’purposeto tell what happenedto entertain,to teachto give informationto tell how to do somethingto persuade others, to take a position and justify itorganizationorientation(tells who, where, whenseries of eventspersonal comment/conclusion(tells who, where, when)problemresolutiongeneral statementcharacteristics(e.g. habitat,appearance, feeding habits)may have subheadingsgoalsteps in sequencepersonal statement of positionargumentsevidencecounter argumentsconnectivesto do with time(first, next, at the end of the day)(one day, later, in the end)not usually usedfirst, second, third, finallyfirst, second, in addition, therefore, however, on the other handother language featurespast tensedescribing wordspast tense,action verbsdialogueuses ‘’to be’’, ‘’to have’’special vocabularyuses verbs to give instructionsmay use persuasive language
27Engagement (activity 1 cont): reporting back – presenting in English Present your pairwork findings to the classappoint spokesman of the groupappoint time-keeper of the groupappoint note-taker: writes results on blackboardstick (or add) texts classified as academic to WORD BANK
28Building knowledge activity 1: listening to academic English and note taking DICTOGLOSS TECHNIQUE Present the class with a dictogloss:Read out academic text (fragment of approx.200 words) three times: first time – students listensecond time: students listen and write down as much as possiblein pairs of two, students compare and discuss notes. They try and write a reconstruction of the text.
29Dictogloss technique (activity 1 cont.) next in groups of four: repeat the process, filling in possible gaps.read text again for the third time – pairs have chance to do some repair workfinal result: check reconstructed text with sample text on overhead.reflect on difficult words. Add these to the WORD BANK or file on
30Sample dictogloss (easy) Text 1 DictoglossWhat types of primary research can be done?Many types of primary research exist. This guide is designed to provide you with an overview of primary research that is often done in writing classes.Interviews: Interviews are one-on-one or small group question and answer sessions. Interviews will provide a lot of information from a small number of people and are useful when you want to get an expert or knowledgeable opinion on a subject.Surveys: Surveys are a form of questioning that is more rigid than interviews and that involve larger groups of people. Surveys will provide a limited amount of information from a large group of people and are useful when you want to learn what a larger population thinks.Observations: Observations involve taking organized notes about occurrences in the world. Observations provide you insight about specific people, events, or locales and are useful when you want to learn more about an event without the biased viewpoint of an interview.Analysis: Analysis involves collecting data and organizing it in some fashion based on criteria you develop. They are useful when you want to find some trend or pattern. A type of analysis would be to record commercials on three major television networks and analyze gender roles.
31Sample dictogloss (medium) Text 2 Dictogloss: quotationsWhat are the differences among quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing?These three ways of incorporating other writers' work into your own writing differ according to the closeness of your writing to the source writing.Quotations must be identical to the original, using a narrow segment of the source. They must match the source document word for word and must be attributed to the original author.Paraphrasing involves putting a passage from source material into your own words. A paraphrase must also be attributed to the original source. Paraphrased material is usually shorter than the original passage, taking a somewhat broader segment of the source and condensing it slightly.Summarizing involves putting the main idea(s) into your own words, including only the main point(s). Once again, it is necessary to attribute summarized ideas to the original source. Summaries are significantly shorter than the original and take a broad overview of the source material.Why use quotations, paraphrases, and summaries?Quotations, paraphrases, and summaries serve many purposes. You might use them to . . .Provide support for claims or add credibility to your writingRefer to work that leads up to the work you are now doingGive examples of several points of view on a subjectCall attention to a position that you wish to agree or disagree withHighlight a particularly striking phrase, sentence, or passage by quoting the originalDistance yourself from the original by quoting it in order to cue readers that the words are not your ownExpand the breadth or depth of your writing
32Sample dictogloss (difficult) Text 3Emily L.R. Harrison, and Sherry A. McKeeDepartment of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States Available online 21 November 2007.AbstractBinge drinking and non-daily cigarette smoking are behaviors that are both problematic and prevalent in young adults. Although the relationship between drinking and daily smoking has been well categorized, the intersection between drinking and smoking in non-daily smokers has not been heavily researched. Past 30-day and within-episode patterns of alcohol and cigarette use were collected in young adult non-daily smokers (N = 40). Results demonstrated that 79% of smoking occurred on drinking days. Alcohol use was significantly greater on smoking days with the result that drinking to risky binge levels was more likely to occur on a smoking day. Smoking typically occurred after a certain level of alcohol pre-load (2.87 drinks). Together these results confirm that young adult non-daily smokers often concurrently use alcohol and cigarettes. Research is needed to identify possible mechanisms underlying the association between binge drinking and cigarette use in this vulnerable population.
33Building knowledge (activity 2) – text reconstruction & adding subheadings Give out scrambled fragments of an academic text (angry partner tore up your one and only copy of this essential piece of work...) materialenbank/building knowledgeAsk students to reconstruct the original.Could they think of adequate (sub)headings?
34Sample text for text reconstruction How to Read an Academic Articleby Becky Rosenberg, Ph.D. Click on link below and print the article. Cut up and put pieces in envelope(s). Make sure to have enough sets available for your class.
35Building knowledge:activity 2 – the academic word generator Present students with sentences containing informal English words (underlined) – see materialenbank/building knowledge/the academic word generatorAsk the class for suggestions to turn these words into Academic English.Write suggestions down on the blackboard, thinking aloud and explaining why you like certain suggestions.useful website if computers available:
36Building knowledge:activity 3– joint construction or cooperative writing Present students with complete sentences in informal English. (www.mindthegap.slo.nl materialenbank/building knowledge/jointwriting)Ask the class for suggestions to turn these sentences into Academic English.Write suggestions down on the blackboard, thinking aloud and explaining why you like certain suggestions.See also suggestions on under “Links” for more material
37Sample exercise re-writing sentences retrieved from http://www.waylink.co.uk/?page=6112 Task:The sentences below are grammatically accurate but the style is inappropriate. Re-write these sentences in a more academic style making any changes you need to.The planners reviewed the report and said that it was great.It's obvious that the work environment is going to get a lot worse.The Chinese economy would like to look after itself, but it's also affected by things that happen outside the country.Notes on the TaskThe planners reviewed the report and said that it was very satisfactory.There is evidence to suggest that the work environment is going to deteriorate.The Chinese economy would like to be self-sufficient, but it's also affected by external factors.
38Building knowledge:activity 4 – how to use a thesaurus Present students with the hand-out on how to use a thesaurus materialenbank/building knowledge/how to use a thesaurusIn pairs students study the material and construct suggestions (synonyms for the word ‘’good’’)Discuss and add good examples to the Word Bank
39Building knowledge activity 5 Tips – references, quotations, footnotes, bibliography give hand-out materialenbank/building knowledge/tips-references, quotations, footnotes, bibliographyhow to avoid plagiarism: discussion on use of quotation marks, footnotes and referenceshow to refer correctly to used source material: the bibliographyhomework: to be studied and used in the SE.
40Transformation: the essay titles Why work upside down? Planning helps...
41How to write an essay: see link on www. mindthegap. slo How to write an essay: see link on (transformation)The essay titles on the website may serve as suggestions:variations: students may choose a topic provided academic research is requiredstudents may choose their ‘’profielwerkstuk’’ as a starting point and write a summary of their research in English
42Transformation: List of V6 (research) topics for assignment Academic English 1) C& M- Subsidizing Art: a Government’s Task?- The Position of French and German in the Dutch Curriculum- Breakfast in the Middle Ages- Can the Royal Family be proud of (all) its ancestors ?2) E & MDaycare: advantages and disadvantages in the development of a childInflation back on the economic agendaThe importance of public transportThe last drop of oil and then...3) N & GWhat makes us tick? Our parents' love or their genes?Acne Vulgaris can be prevented through skin hygieneEating disorders and the mediaGender differences in pain perception4) N & TRadiated food improves our healthCurrent oil crisis: a blessing in disguiseBenefits from space explorationThe position of nuclear energy seen in the light of rising oil prices
43Presentation – step 4 assessment, using ERK for written presentation resultsand spoken presentation results using the CEFR as a guide-linediscuss pros and cons – see materialenbank/presentationalternatively rubrics may be used as schools were used to do
44Reflection – step 5What would you like to remember about Academic English?Why? Write this down somewhere so that you can later consult your ‘good intentions’.How may you go on developing your Academic English? see also suggested websites on under ‘’links’’.
45www.mindthegap.slo.nl – has even more to offer.... Any questions?Please explore the possibilities at home...