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Digital Multimedia, 2nd edition Nigel Chapman & Jenny Chapman Chapter 1 This presentation © 2004, MacAvon Media Productions Introduction.

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Presentatie over: "Digital Multimedia, 2nd edition Nigel Chapman & Jenny Chapman Chapter 1 This presentation © 2004, MacAvon Media Productions Introduction."— Transcript van de presentatie:

1 Digital Multimedia, 2nd edition Nigel Chapman & Jenny Chapman Chapter 1 This presentation © 2004, MacAvon Media Productions Introduction

2 Welkom bij DM OI&T Docent Sjoerd de Vos

3 © 2004, MacAvon Media Productions 1 Organisatie

4 © 2004, MacAvon Media Productions 1 Doel college reeks Introductie Digitale Multimedia Introductie betekenis Multimedia (H1) Software en hardware aspecten (H2) Technische achtergrond verschillende media zoals tekst, geluid, video en plaatjes (H3,4,5 en 7) Korte kennismaking Multimedia en scripting (bijv. XML) (H14+16)

5 © 2004, MacAvon Media Productions 1 Dames en Heren: wij leven in een zeer spannende tijd: Internet, TomTom, Robots etc. Waar gaat dit eindigen? Bestaan over 10 jaar de televisie, de telefoon en de radio nog? Welke mogelijkheden bestaan en zullen uiteindelijk gebruikt worden om: video, tekst, persoonlijke gegevens etc. aan elkaar te koppelen en op te zoeken. De mogelijkheden zijn grenzeloos Digital Multimedia 2

6 © 2004, MacAvon Media Productions 1 Werkwijze: zelf het boek schrijven Eerste 45 minuten: werken aan opdrachten en elkaars werk presenteren Tweede 45 minuten: behandeling collegestof Afsluiting: Tentamen over Hoofdstuk 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,14 en 16

7 © 2004, MacAvon Media Productions 1 Opdrachten voor vandaag Beschrijf de geschiedenis van Multimedia van 1985 tot nu: mogelijkheden software en hardware (onderzoek op Internet) Gebruik belangrijke momenten zoals: de CD- ROM, het internet, het begin van geluid en film op het net, Google Beschrijf wat “The Platform for Internet Content Selection (PICS)” doet en waarom men vindt dat dat nodig is (onderzoek op Internet). Probeer criteria te vinden waarop je zou kunnen filteren. Is filteren wenselijk? Idem voor W3C Kies twee multimediale websites en beschrijf 5 criteria waaraan ze zouden moeten voldoen en hoe beide sites kunnen worden verbeterd Beschrijf voordelen en nadelen van user generated content: kan alles of heeft e.e.a. grenzen

8 © 2004, MacAvon Media Productions 1 The same story, information, etc can be represented in different media Text, images, sound, moving pictures All media can be represented digitally as a structured collection of bits Manipulated by programs, stored, transmitted over networks Digital media can be combined into multimedia Digital Multimedia 2

9 © 2004, MacAvon Media Productions 1 Combination of media is actually commonplace (e.g. TV news) and natural – we perceive the world through all our senses at once Novelty of digital multimedia is that all media can be treated as data Programs can manipulate data in response to user input, so digital multimedia can be interactive Interactive Multimedia 3–4

10 © 2004, MacAvon Media Productions 1 Some dates: CD-ROM specification published 1985 CD-ROM drives on desktop machines from ~1989 WWW publicly available at start of 1992 Handful of servers; line-based browser HTML 3.2 adopted as W3C Recommendation in January 1997 Audio and video proprietary extensions Historical Context 4

11 © 2004, MacAvon Media Productions 1 Takes time for conventions about content and consumption to become established – cf film: 1895 footage of train arriving at station Early animations and trick films shown as part of vaudeville acts at the same time as narrative films were being shown in cinemavaudeville acts Established forms translated into new medium (e.g. newsreels based on newspapers) Cultural Development 5–6

12 © 2004, MacAvon Media Productions 1 Multimedia production – display and presentation is the sole purpose Multimedia application – display is driven by computation e.g. Web application presenting data stored in a database Multiple media – user must switch between modalities (read, watch, listen,…) instead of combining them Terminology 6–7

13 © 2004, MacAvon Media Productions 1 Digital multimedia: any combination of two or more media, represented in a digital form, sufficiently well integrated to be presented via a single interface, or manipulated by a single computer program Definition 7

14 © 2004, MacAvon Media Productions 1 Online Uses a network (usually the Internet) to send information from one computer to another World Wide Web is commonest form of online delivery of multimedia Offline Removable storage medium is used to carry the data CD-ROM, DVD Delivery 8–9

15 © 2004, MacAvon Media Productions 1 Text, images laid out in 2-D arrangement as in book or magazine Time-based elements embedded as if they were images Playback controls may be provided Pages combined using links (hypermedia) Essentially static Page-Based Multimedia 10

16 © 2004, MacAvon Media Productions 1 Elements arranged in time Presented in sequence on a timeline Elements may be frames or discrete pages (slideshow) Often incorporates parallelism Parallel elements may be synchronized Time-Based Multimedia 11

17 © 2004, MacAvon Media Productions 1 Film: fixed order of frames defines a single playback sequence Book: physical arrangement of text and pages implies a linear reading order Linearity 10

18 © 2004, MacAvon Media Productions 1 Flash: jumps between frames, controlled by interactivity, permit branching and loops Hypermedia: links between pages permit multiple arbitrary reading orders Non-Linearity 11

19 © 2004, MacAvon Media Productions 1 User input may control a multimedia production, but only within limits set by the multimedia producer Only choices that are coded into the program are possible Can allow the user to control events at many points, leading to combinatorial growth in number of possibilities e.g. 4 choices at each of 5 points implies 20 branches but 1024 possible sequences Interactivity 13–14

20 © 2004, MacAvon Media Productions 1 Means of presenting choices and accepting user input can vary enormously from Stylized interface elements used by mainstream OSs and applications to Free-form, dynamically changing interaction of games Conventions are predictable, but limited to (static) context in which they were developed User Interfaces 15–16

21 © 2004, MacAvon Media Productions 1 If access to multimedia is the norm, those denied access become marginalized ('digital divide') Access may be limited by lack of: Access to equipment and skills Network infrastructure Literacy and education Physical and cognitive abilities These factors may depend on wealth, geographical location,… Access 17–20

22 © 2004, MacAvon Media Productions 1 Access to production of traditional media highly restricted Books: distributed through publishers, subject to editorial scrutiny; barriers to newcomers Film: very high cost; studios prefer safe bets Music: mostly distributed by few labels controlled by small number of multinationals; hard to break in to the business TV: video production relatively low cost, but access to broadcast rigidly controlled Traditional Media Production 21–23

23 © 2004, MacAvon Media Productions 1 Potentially anyone with Internet access can have their own Web site ISPs provide free Web space Free and inexpensive tools are adequate WWW has potential for revolution in access to the means of production and distribution of digital material Web Site Production 21

24 © 2004, MacAvon Media Productions 1 User generated content Media: blogs, vlogs, Youtube, podcasts, Wikipedia Spray TV on Youtube Bedrijven: intranet (cms), wiki’s Techniek: snellere verbindingen, toegankelijker techniek, opslagcapaciteit Structurering informatie: ogenschijnlijk minder dwingend, een IE moet hier richting kunnen geven

25 © 2004, MacAvon Media Productions 1 -Gisteren 2 prijzen gekregen bezoekers per dag -Top 10 best bezochte actualiteitensites -Feauteaufuck-vrijdag -Dump filmpjes, audio, plaatjes - Voorbeeld nieuw interactief medium door oa verbeterde techniek

26 © 2004, MacAvon Media Productions 1 All sufficiently complex societies seek to control what people may see or hear, either by explicit policing, economic or other means Rapid growth of the Internet and its potential for disseminating unacceptable content has given new impetus to debates about censorship Complicated ethical issues with no enduring conclusion or consensus despite thousands of years of debate Control of Content 24–25

27 © 2004, MacAvon Media Productions 1 WWW is global network, hence material reaches many different societies and cultural and religious groups within those societies Many different models of censorship – none, rigid centralized control, self-regulation, … Unrealistic to expect a single model of censorship to be acceptable everywhere Difficult to assign responsibility for disseminaton of content on Internet Diversity 25–26

28 © 2004, MacAvon Media Productions 1 Platform for Internet Content Selection Attempt to provide a mechanism that supports a diversity of attitudes towards content and censorship Labels attached to each page, providing a rating of its contents PICS only defines standard label format Screening software rejects material deemed unsuitable according to user's criteria Defers the difficult decisions PICS 27–29

29 © 2004, MacAvon Media Productions 1 Huiswerk Bestudeer Hoofdstuk 1 en maak de vragen (tussen 11 en 12 uur voor zover je komt, thuis de rest)


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