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Uitdagingen voor de docenten Moderne Talen in de volwassen educatie

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1 Uitdagingen voor de docenten Moderne Talen in de volwassen educatie
Kristi Jauregi Universiteit Utrecht Coutinho / Levende Talen

2 Schema Maatschappij Onderwijs breed Taalonderwijs Context (NT2 /MVT)
Voorwaarden voor taalverwerving Grammatica Interactie Interculturele communicatie Web 2.0

3 1. Maatschappij Globalisatie

4 Dynamisch Snel Lifelong learning

5 Creativiteit Kofino

6 Netwerken Samenwerking

7 Verbonden Kofino Kofino

8 Social media

9 Belang van communicatie & talen

10 Cross-culturele communicatie
Meertaligheid: 1 + 2 Interculturele competentie Sociale cohesie

11 Kofino

12 Internet gebruik in Nederland


14 Waar gebruik je internet voor?

15 2. Onderwijs Top down Docent Formeel onderwijs

16 80 % van kennis en vaardigheden wordt opgedaan via: informeel leren

17 Studenten Kofino


19 Onderwijs: leer en student gericht

20 Kofino

21 Stimuleer de creativiteit!

22 Stimuleer de samenwerking

23 Verandering in leertheorieën
Cognitivisme Kennis wordt verworven, opeengestapeld Leren: individueel gebeuren Sociaal constructivisme Kennis als betekenis die wordt geconstrueerd via taken Leren van en met anderen

24 De vaardige docent van de 21ste eeuw
Is vertrouwd met gebruik computers Is creatief Is kritisch Zoekt uitdagingen Is constructief Is verbonden (connected)

25 3. Moderne talen onderwijs: context
Verschillen NT2 / MTO? Doelgroep Behoeftes / Doelen Toegang tot T2/VT input en interactie Methodologie

26 Taalonderwijs: vorwaarden en principes
Blootstelling aan begrijpelijk, gevarieerd en rijke input (i+1, Krashen, 1982, 1985). Mogelijkheden om (pushed) output (Swain, 1985) te produceren, die begrijpelijk, correct en adequaat is in de gesprekscontext (Lantolf, 2006). Interactie in de doeltaal stimuleren in een sociale en authentieke context (Lantolf, 2006; Kasper, 2001). In dit proces staat negotiation of meaning (Long, 1996) centraal. In een betekenis georiënteerde onderwijsperspectief, moeten er momenten zijn om aandacht te schenken aan formele taalelementen: focus of form (Doughty & Willis, 1998; Long, 1996). Het gebruik van strategieën moet gestimuleerd worden (Oxford, 2010; Dörnyei et al 1997; Richards et al 2009). Focus op Interculturele Communicatie (Byram,1997; Kasper, 2001; Kramsch, 1993, 1998; Lo Bianco et al 1999; Müller-Jacquier, 2003).

27 Interactie centraal in leerprocessen
T2V Taken Socio constructivisme (Vygotsky, 1962) Interactie ICC Met expert leeftijdsgenoten

28 Grammatica Een van de subcompetenties binnen de communicatieve competentie

LINGUISTIC COMPETENCES SOCIOLINGUISTIC COMPETENCES Linguistic markers of social relations PRAGMATIC COMPETENCES Functional competence Politeness conventions COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE COMPETENCES Discourse competence Expressions of folk wisdom Interaction schemata Register differences Dialect and accent Lexical (Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment Grammatical Phonological Semantic …….

30 Grammatica Onenigheid over welke methode de beste is (onderzoek/docenten/studenten)(Ellis, 2006): Direct / indirect Impliciet / Expliciet Belangrijk om grammatica in de communicatieve context te behandelen (focus on form) (Swain; 1996; Doughty & William, 1998; Lightbown, 1998; Norris & Ortega, 2000; Ellis, 2002; Lyster,2004). Lessituatie: veel variabelen (Kumaravadivelu, 2009) Grammatica onderwijs: geen duidelijk beeld (Allwright, 1983) Post method: Drama grammar (Even, 2011)

31 Interculturele communicatie

32 Sociale cohesie Wederzijds begrip
(Byram, 1997; Zarate et al. 2004; Kramsch)

33 Kofino

34 Belang van Web 2.0 NIFLAR Project

35 Make them more rewarding!!
NIFLAR Objectives: Enrich Innovate learning processes Improve Make them more rewarding!!

36 Blended learning Authenticity of language learning Interaction
Learner centeredness Interaction Authenticity of language learning Telecollaboration Promoting blended learning Face-to-face classroom teaching Telecollaboration: To enhance oral interaction & ICC Using synchronous tools that enable oral distant interaction with expert peers According to relevant and meaningful tasks ICC

37 NIFLAR 2009-2011, Virtual environments:
Video- communication Adobe connect Virtual worlds Second Life Open Sim

38 Experiences NIFLAR (2009-2011)
22 pilot experiences have been carried out in video-communication and Second Life (OS), Both with secondary and tertiary learners (A1-B2 / pre-service teachers) 430 students have participated in cross-cultural sessions (1 to 1 / 1 to 2) (3 to 5 sessions per course once a week) Developed criteria for effective tasks 60 interaction tasks for Dutch, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish have been developed & tested. Data gathered for research

39 Voorbeeld videocommunicatie

40 Voorbeeld virtuele werelden

41 Research issues Is there an added value in implementing virtual interaction through video-communication & virtual worlds in language teaching curricula? What are foreign language learners’ experiences? Is there any impact on motivation? Is there any indication suggesting that learners learn more if they have the opportunity to engage in networked interaction with experts according to relevant tasks? What happens during those cross-cultural interactions?

42 Foreign language learners’ experiences: positive aspects
“Step by step you learn to speak more easily in the target language without feeling any boundaries. It improves your talking skills” “We learned a lot of new words, known culture and lifestyle in the Netherlands. I have no fear of speaking” “I had an opportunity to talk with a native speaker which is not very frequent in the language course. We had also interesting tasks, so it was something different than a normal lesson” “Personally I think that the greatest thing is that we made new friends from the Netherlands so we can keep in touch and keep improving”

43 Start interaction sessions
Impact on motivation Start interaction sessions 5 point Likert scale Spanish

44 Learning effect. Results.
Interaction effect between condition and pre- and post-tests was found to be significant. In other words, the difference between pre- and post- test scores depends on the specific condition (F 2, 34 = 5.01; p = .012). The results show that the difference between pre- and post- oral tests depends on the specific condition. Especially in the SL and VWC condition students show on average more progression than in the control condition. Hence, both SL and VWC have an additive effect on students’ test scores.

45 Interaction analysis Learners exposed to very rich input (i+1; pragmatic adequacy). Learners use language meaningfully (output hypothesis + ICC). Varied sequences of negotiation of cultural and linguistic meaning emerge. Authenticity of interaction. Positive learning atmosphere. It is fun! Differences VC v. SL: VC static, visual added value (gestures), more quantity of talk SL dynamic, creative, unexpected L use linguistic focus, more silences EV en España no hay muchas personas que van en bici / hora / un poco por / en las grandes ciudades empiezan a construir carriles bici para// EU1 ¿carriles? carriles bici es la vía por donde va la bicicleta porque Valencia es una gran ciudad donde hay mucho / muchos coches / entonces ellos fabrican una pequeña vía especial solamente para bicicletas okei está pintada en rojo y nosotros vamos / la bicicletas / es más seguro ir por el carril bici / pero es muy nuevo / es un concepto de hace cuatro o cinco años / normalmente los españoles cogen mucho el coche es una pena en Holanda hay muchos carriles bici Analysis of the interaction sessions show that varied meaningful sequences arise. Participants exchange social and cultural meaning spontaneously. There are frequent instances of negotiation of meaning, both linguistic and cultural, as participants collaborate with each other reflecting upon and clarifying concepts, customs, styles or behaviors resorting to their personal knowledge and experiences. The environment elicits different interaction patterns. Sequences in video-web communication are static, visual-cues (facial expressions, body language, laughter) play a crucial role in the exchanges intensifying and clarifying meaning and contribute to enhance interpersonal relationships. Sequences in virtual worlds, on the other hand, are dynamic and action related. Unpredicted context specific sequences emerge, as avatars change their appearance or unexpected things happen, which frequently also elicit hilarious communication exchanges. There were many instances of laughter, with participants sharing empathy and working towards creating symmetrical relations during the interaction exchanges trying to strengthen interpersonal relationships and solidarity.

46 Meer weten, doen? NIFLAR:;
Euroversity: / TILA NL: 3DLes (de NIFLAR sims, Chatterdale, Parolay and …more GRID locations) Utrecht Summerschool 2012 NIFLAR Comenius course: in Utrecht (week 32) & Valencia (week 42) SURF - OWD2011

47 Hartelijk dank!

48 Byram, M. (1997). Teaching and Assessing Intercultural Communicative Competence. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Dörnyei, Z.; Scott, M. (1997). "Communication strategies in a second language: definitions and taxonomies". Language Learning 47: 173–210. Doughty, C. & Williams, J. (1998). Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition. Cambridge:C.U.P. Ellis, R. (2002). The place of grammar instruction in second/foreign curriculum. In E. Hinkel & S. Fotos (eds.) New perspectives on grammar teaching in L2 learning. Mahway: Erlbaum Even, S. (2011). Drama Grammar: towards a performative postmethod peagogy. The Language Learning Journal, 39/ Hinkel, E. (ed.) (2004). Culture in Second Language Teaching and Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kramsch, C. (1993). Context and Culture in Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press Kramsch, C Language and culture. Oxford: O.U.P. Kumaradivelu, B. (2009). Understanding Language Teaching. From method to postmethod.New York:Routledge. Lantolf, J.P., & Thorne, S.L. (eds.) (2006). Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Lo Bianco et al (1999). Striving for the Third Place: Intercultural Competence through Language Education. Melbourne: Clearinghouse. Long, M. (1996). The role of the linguistic environment in L2 acquisition. In Handbook of L2 acquisition, ed. W. Rirchie & T.K. Bhatia, San Diego: Müller-Jacquier, J. (2003). Linguistic awareness and cultures. In Jürgen (Ed.) Studien zur internationalen Internehmenskommunikation (pp ). Leipzig: Popp. Richards, Jack C.; Schmidt, Richard, eds (2009). "Communication strategy". Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics. New York: Longman. Swain, M. (1985). Communicative competence. Some roles of comprehemsible input and comprehensible output in its development. In Input in second language acquisition, ed. S. Gass & C. Madden, Rowley: Newbury. Vygotsky, L.S. (1962). Thought and Language. Massachusetts: MIT Press.

49 (educ

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