5 “LITERALLY THE WORST MOVIE EVER MADE” Film Historische juistheid,Details,...Film DialogenActeurs....LITERALLY THE WORST MOVIE EVER MADEI would say I hate to do this, seeing as how this is Oliver Stone and not another little shit music video director who's blown the right producer for the job, but PHUCK THIS GARBAGE HEAP. Oliver MUST RETIRE NOW.
7 Situering in tijd en ruimte WAAR ?MacedoniëIn het noorden van GriekenlandTen noorden en westen ervan steile bergketensVol met moerassen« barbaars » landbouw- en herdersvolk
8 Situering in tijd en ruimte WANNEER (4de v. C)Ruw landbouwers-en herdersvolkHadden de taal en gebruiken van de Grieken overgenomen (waren hellenen)Namen NIET deel aan Olympische SpelenBestuurd door rijke familiesÉén rijke familie palmde heel het land in.Philippus II (van deze familie) op 22 jaar koning (359 v.C)
9 Situering in tijd en ruimte Pelop. OorlogSparta<-> Athenev.CPelop. OorlogAthene+Thebe<->Sparta(371)Athene+Sparta <-> Thebe(362)GR.PhilippusKoning 359Één aristocratischefamilie aan de machtRo.
11 Philippus II van Macedonië Goed vertrouwd met de GriekenHield van paarden, jacht, wijnAmbitieus : wou rijk uitbreidenD.m.v. falanx*Oorlogen financieren d.m.v.Verovering havensteden in Noorden (verbinding met zee)Goudmijnen van ThraciëMilitair talent (tacticus, vooruitziend,…)Was gijzelaar van Pelopidas geweest te Thebe
12 Philippus verovert Griekenland Eerst Zwarte Zee met Griekse kolonies lid van de Attische zeebondTrok zich telkens terug als teveel Gr weerstandWachtte het geschikte moment af.In Athene zag een partij hem als de redder van GriekenlandVersloeg Atheners en Thebanen Chaeronea 2 aug 338 = eind van de vrije Griekse polis.
13 Philippus en de Korinthische bond Griekse staten (behalve Sparta) verenigen zich in de Korinthische Bond onder persoonlijk gezag van Philippus.Griekse eenmaking (vroeger onmogelijk geacht)336 v C, Philippus vermoord (47j)
15 Falanxshows the phalanx in a more open position in which the pikes of each rank have a clear field to the front. This formation is shown below. The difficulty with this solution is that the phalanx is always described as a tight formation, with only 1'6" to the file. This formation has as much as 4' between files.
17 moeder Moed en inzicht van vader Wispelturig karakter van moeder. Lexander Olympia
18 Moeder... Alexander ... Zoon van Olympias en ...Zeus Afkomst : barbaarse koningsdochterRituele Dionysusdansen...Olympias was the orphaned daughter of the king of Epirus, now modern Albania. According to Plutarch, she was descended from Aeacus, through Neoptolemus. Aeacus was the legendary king of Aegina and the grandfather of Achilles. The area from which Olympias came was considered barbaric, and her practice of Dionysian rituals did little to convince Philip and other Macedonians otherwise.She probably had fair skin, and was probably red- or auburn-haired, according to Renault. She was also known to be jealous and vindictive, and very protective of Alexander. She did not appreciate Philip's polygamy and wanted to see Alexander become heir to the throne. She would usually take Alexander's side in family disputes, and some writers even claim that she helped inspire Pausanias' plot to kill Philip.Olympias and Alexander had deep feelings for each other, perhaps more substantial than normal mother-son connections. She was especially jealous of Hephastion, Alexander's very intimate friend since boyhood. She felt that he was keeping Alexander from her and a potential wife. Olympias frequently tried to arrange for women to attempt to seduce Alexander, but never succeeded.A short time after Alexander's death, Olympias and Alexander's widow, Roxane, were both murdered by Cassander, a one-time friend of Alexander.
19 Alexander volgt vader op 20 jaarMacedonische opvoeding (paardrijden, vechten en drinken)Verwend en bedorvenDuldde geen tegenspraakTemperamentvolMan van de daadLes van Aristoteles (rede + Gr. beschaving-)Na drinkpartij : woedeaanvallen ….
20 Paard bucephalusPlutarch tells us the story of wondrous horse, Bucephalus, the horse that Alexander the Great rode for thousands of miles and through many battles to create his mighty empire.The legend begins with Philoneicus, a Thessalian bringing a wild horse to Philip II, the father of Alexander the Great. Philip was angry at Phinoneicus for bringing such an unstable horse to him but Alexander had watched Bucephalus and set his father, Philip, a challenge. Although Alexander was only 12 years old he had noticed that Bucephalus was shying away from his own shadow. Alexander gently led Bucephalus into the sun so that his shadow was behind him. Eventually Bucephalus allowed Alexander to ride him, much to the public humiliation of Philip. Philip gained face by commenting "Look thee out a kingdom equal to and worthy of thyself, for Macedonia is too little for thee". Alexander named the horse Bucephalus because the horse's head seemed "as broad as a bulls".Bucephalus, the mighty stallion, died of battle wounds in 326B.C in Alexander's last battle. Alexander founded the city of Bucephala (thought to be the modern town of Jhelum, Pakistan) in memory of his wonderful horse.Like his hero and ancestor Achillis, Alexander viewed his horses as "known to excel all others-for they are immortal. Poseiden gave them to my father Peleus, who in his turn gave them to myself"
27 De vijanden Griekse leger Getrainde legers (falanx en ruiterij) O.l.v. Alexander de GroteGoede leiding en organisatiePerzisch leger(land opp 50x groter(inwoners 20x meer)SamenraapselVerschillende talenGeen tactische eenheidMinder getraindOrganisatie minder (o.a. bevoorrading…)
30 Perzische leiding Begin Perzisch leger o.l.v. de Griek Memnon stelde vast dat de Grieken weinig levensmiddelen hadden meegenomenStelde voor terug te trekken en het eigen land te verwoesten (verschroeide aarde)Door Perzische satrapen van Klein-Azië afgewezen (inkomstenverlies)Men zou Alexander de Grote opwachten bij Granicus, een kleine rivier
31 Alexander verovert 334 : 30.000 infanteristen, 5.000 ruiters Hellespont overGRANICUS : eerste treffenDoor verrassende, snelle aanval : weinig verliezenPerzische leger vernietigd / uiteengeslagenOnderwerpt Klein-Azië (groot deel Grieken)Onthaald als bevrijder (democratie hersteld, geen schatting aan Perzische koning)Laat plaatselijke bestuur
32 334 Gordium : winterkwartier in Phrygische hoofdstad. Orakel : knoop in disselboom ontwarren =>heerser van AziëDe Knoop doorhakken.Memnon (Griekse aanvoerder Perzen sterft)
34 Darius III brengt groot leger same 333 ISSUS : tweede treffen, met Darius III persoonlijkBij havenstad Issus (zuidoosthoek Kl. Azië)Alexander met vleugel tot aanval – Darius vluchtDarius laat leger en gezin en familie achterLeger zonder leiding =>paniekGrote oorlogsbuitDarius biedt losgeld en grond aan. Alex weigert.
35 Let op ! Andere bronnen Perzische bronnen geven een andere verhaal.... Kleitabletten worden nog onderzocht en schetsen ander beeld o.a. overDarius geen lafaard maar dappere generaalDood van Alexander ...Cf. artikel in Standaard
38 This close up of Alexander and Bucephalas is from the mosaic of the battle of Issus from the Museo Nazionale, Naples, Italy. This close up of Alexander and Bucephalas is from the mosaic of the battle of Issus from the Museo Nazionale, Naples, Italy.
40 From the Museo Nazionale, Naples, Italy From the Museo Nazionale, Naples, Italy. Dated from the late 2nd century. B.C., copy of a painting dated to c. 300 B.C. Traditionally this scene reresents the turning-point at Issus when Darius fled the battle; but Philoxenus, the artist from whose painting the mosaic was copied, may have incorporated elements from other battles. Alexander's personal moment of peril seems borrowed from the Granicus, and the confrontation also has echoes of Gaugamela. This description is taken from a site that has many detailed photos of the mosaic:This mosaic depicts a battle between Alexander the Great and the Persian king Darius, probably the Battle of the Issus River in November of 333 B.C. It is in opus vermiculatum, with over one and a half million tesserae, none larger than 4 mm., in four colors: white, yellow, red, and black. The minuteness of the tesserae enables incredibly fine detail and painterly effects, including remarkable portraits of Alexander and Darius.The border of this huge mosaic consists of large stones in a dentate pattern . In the corners are rosettes. Within the border along the bottom of the picture is a blank brown stripe, which some consider to be part of the picture, balancing the white expanse of sky at the top, while others argue that it is simply part of the frame.The composition of the mosaic is dominated by the two protagonists: On the left, Alexander, with his head uncovered, rushes forward on his horse Bucephalus. He holds a spear with which he has skewered a Persian soldier, who has rushed to the defence of Darius. With Alexander appear his helmeted Macedonian soldiers, although little remains of them due to damage of the left side of the mosaic. On the right Darius, wearing a Persian cap, stretches out his hand to his wounded defender, while his charioteer whips the horses to flee toward the right. Around him are his Persian soldiers who mill in confusion in the background, their faces filled with fear and determination. One Persian, however, to the right of the dying defender of Darius, is intent upon Alexander, and holds his sword in his hand, ready to attack.There are many details which emphasize the terror and confusion of the battle. The horse of the Persian defender of Darius collapses beneath him while he writhes in agony on Alexander's spear. Below Darius in his chariot, a Persian soldier, staring in horror at this scene, attempts to hold a rearing horse. The hindquarters of this horse project into the middle ground of the picture, giving it a sense of depth. To the right, a soldier is being crushed under the wheels of Darius' chariot. His face is reflected in the shield which he holds. Further to the right appear the terrified horses of the chariot team, trampling upon another unfortunate Persian.The composition of the mosaic is dominated by diagonals. The center is dominated by the intersecting diagonals of the Persian speared by Alexander and the Persian restraining the rearing horse. Two other sets of intersecting diagonals are provided by the figures of Darius and his charioteer and by Alexander and the wounded Persian. The lances in the background of the picture also carry on the diagonal motif.The setting of the battle is very stylized. In the background appears a tree with bare twisted limbs whose diagonals continue the unifying compositional motif of the mosaic. The tree also serves as a formal vertical counterweight to the Persian king and his charioteer, who rise above the battle fray. In the foreground are discarded weapons and rocks, which serve to define the space between the viewer and the battle scene.The Alexander mosaic is thought to be based on a painting which Philoxenus of Eretria created for King Cassander of Macedonia. The painting is described by Pliny the Elder as representing "the battle of Alexander with Darius." Certain inconsistencies in the mosaic point to its derivation from another source. In the center of the composition appears a helmeted head to the right of the rearing horse. Two lance shafts come from the left and abruptly stop behind this he‡d. To the right of the same head appears a head of a horse and beneath this are the hindquarters of another horse, neither of which is logically completed. Among the four horses of Darius' chariot there are parts of a white horse which do not fit together anatomically. Above these horses is a Persian soldier who appears to have two right hands, one on his head and the other raised in the air. These details provide evidence that the mosaicist misunderstood details of the original.Nevertheless, the overall effect of the mosaic is masterful. The expert blending of the colors of the tesserae and the careful control of the overall composition create a scene which comes to life with all the horror and confusion of battle. The Alexander mosaic is a truly great work, unmatched in the history of Roman art.
42 Naar Egypte richting Egypte Kusten Middellandse Zee verder onderworpen Zodat de Perzische vloot machteloos wordt.Egypte zonder wapengeweld : los van Perzich jukleert dat Egyptische en Perzische koningen goddelijk karakter haddenOrakel : Alexander is zoon van Amon=>goddelijke eer
45 Perzië verslagen Naar Babylon Naar Susa= grote rijkdommen talenten (2 miljard BF)Naar Persepolistalentenkoninklijk paleis in brand (wraak verwoesting Griekse tempels)Naar Ecbatane (vierde stad)Achtervolging DariusDarius vermoord door satraap Artaxerxes die zich tot koning liet uitroepen
49 Alexander tegen Ataxerxes strijd voor het eigenlijke Perzische rijk (Iran) Guerilla-oorlog, harde vijand aangevoerd door Zoroastrische religie.Alexander moet leger omvormen in kleinere en beweeglijker eenhedenNieuw gedeelte van leger uit Perzen om Grieken en perzen te leren samenwerken3 jaar om Iran te onderwerpenWilde nu voornamelijk rust brengen en organiserenHij stichtte stededn met sterke Macedonische bezetting
50 Hij gaat steeds meer als een oosters heerser optreden EerbewijzenHij leerde de Perzische taalSteeds meer Perzen in zijn dienst
51 327 : Alexander breidt rijk uit tot het rijke Indië. Edelmetalen, edelstenenHij dacht de wereldzee te bereiken.Koning Porus en groot leger brengen weerstand.Leger paar honderd olifantenFlanken aangevallen door AlexanderPaniek … overwinningMunt ter herdenking overwinningen in indië
54 Alexanders legert weigert verder naar het oosten te trekken. Tropische regen (2 maanden)Lang weg van huis. (8 jaar)Bevel tot terugtochtDeel in schepen, rest langs oevers10 maand later aan de monding van de IndusTerugmars door hete woestijn…honger, dorst, hitte eisen tol van mens en dier
57 In 324 in SusaSatrapen waren als heer en meester van hun gebied gaan optredenAlexander herstelt met ijzeren hand de ordeMacedoniërs aangesteld als satraap
58 Inname van de Sogdiaanse rots News had come in that a large number of the natives had taken refuge on the Rock of Sogdia, and among them the wife and daughters of Oxyartes the Bactrian, who had himself refused to submit to Alexander and had chosen this refuge for his family in the belief that the Rock was impregnable. It was the last stronghold of Sogdia: should it fall, there would be nothing left for those who still hoped to offer resistance. To the Rock, therefore, Alexander advanced, at the beginning of Spring. He found, on a near approach, that it rose sheer on every side against attack. The natives had provisioned it for a long siege, and deep snow on its summit caused the double disadvantage of making the ascent more awkward for the Macedonians and of ensuring the defenders an unlimited supply of water. None the less, Alexander determined on assault.In point of fact the reason for his determination was something the natives had said, an offensive bit of bragging which made him angry and put him on his mettle. He had called on them to discuss terms, and offered to allow them to return unmolested to their homes on condition of surrendering the stronghold; but their answer to the offer was a shout of laughter. Then in their barbaric lingo they told Alexander to ford soldiers with wings to capture the Rock for him, as no other sort of person could cause them the least anxiety. As a result of this, Alexander proclaimed that he would give a prize of twelve talents to the first man up, and of eleven to the second, and ten to the third, and so on to the twelfth, who would receive 300 gold darics. The men were keen enough already, but this proclamation was an added spur.There were some 300 men who in previous sieges had had experience in rock-climbing. These now assembled. They had provided themselves with small iron tent-pegs, which they proposed to drive into the snow, where it was frozen hard, or into any bit of bare earth they might come across, and they had attached to the pegs strong flaxen lines. The party set off under cover of darkness to the steepest part of the rock-face, which they knew was least likely to be guarded; then, driving their pegs either into bare ground or into such patches of mow as seemed most likely to hold under the strain, they hauled themselves up, wherever each could find a way. About thirty lost their lives during the ascent -falling in various places in the snow, their bodies were never recovered for burial- but the rest reached the top as dawn was breaking, and the summit of the Rock was theirs.Then, in accordance with Alexander's orders, they signaled their success to the troops below by waving bits of linen, and Alexander sent a crier to shout the news to the enemy's advanced posts that they might now surrender without further delay, as the men with wings had been found and were already in possession of the summit. And, as the crier gave them this information, Alexander pointed to his men, where they stood on top of the Rock.The unexpectedness of the sight was a severe shock to the natives; indeed, they were so much alarmed by the handful of Macedonian troops they could actually see, that, imagining a larger force, and fully armed at that, must be in possession, they surrendered. Many women and children were among the prisoners, notably the wife and daughters of Oxyartes.One of these daughters was named Roxane. She was a girl of marriageable age, and men who took part in the campaign used to say she was the loveliest woman they had seen in Asia, with the one exception of Darius' wife. Alexander fell in love with her at sight; but, captive though she was, he refused, for all his passion, to force her to his will, and condescended to marry herHe then pushed on towards India via Afghanistan. One of his more brilliant acts was the capture of the Sogdian Rock. At the top of the said rock was Oxyartes, who felt safe because of the sheer cliffs on each side. He taunted Alexander to send up men with wings to capture the fortress. Alexander duly obliged. He sent up 300 experienced climbers during the night with the promise of fabulous wealth if they made it. The climb - a "very severe" mountaineering parlance was completed by 90% of the soldiers. In the morning, Oxyartes was appalled to see these men "with wings" waving down at him. He surrendered. Alexander and he then became good friends - Alexander married his sister Roxanne.
59 Alexander & RoxaneRoxane was the daughter of a Sogdian/Bactrian nobleman. The Sogdians were an ancient Iranian people whose homeland was in the area around Samarkand and who had established settlements throughout Chinese Turkistan before the advent of Islam.When Alexander the Great invaded the Persian Empire, the Bactrians, under Bessus, resisted stoutly, but they were subdued in 328.Roxane, then only sixteen years old, offered herself to Alexander the Great and they were married in 327. Aetion, a contemporary painter made a painting of it, which was later re-created by the Renaissance painter Giovanne Bazzi better known as Il Sodoma. From the painting we know that Alexander's best man was his friend and lover Hephaestion.In 323 Roxane became pregnant but Alexander the Great died without ever seeing his son. One of Alexander's commanders, Perdiccas, was chosen as regent for Alexander's mentally retarded brother and Alexander's son. Perdiccas and Roxane executed Alexander's second wife Statira who could have been a rival to Roxane and her son.Roxane and her son were murdered by Cassander in 310 B.C.
60 RoxaneThis brief description by Lucian of Samosata was used in 1514 by the Renaissance painter Giovanni Antonio Bazzi, better known as Il Sodoma ( ), to recreate Aetion's famous painting in the Farnesina villa in Rome, where it can still be seen. Sodoma's copy is regarded as one of the masterpieces of the Italian Renaissance.In 327, Alexander married the daughter of the Bactrian nobleman Oxyartes, Roxane. No source describes the marriage, but a contemporary painter named Aetion made a painting of it, and this painting is described by the Greek author Lucian of Samosata (Paintings, section 7). The translation is by Robin Lane Fox.... a very beautiful bedroom, with a wedding bed on which Roxane was sitting; she was an extraordinary lovely girl but, modestly, she looked down at the ground, feeling shy before Alexander who stood beside her. Smiling cupids were in attendance: one stood behind and pulled back the veil from her face; another removed her shoe, while a third was tugging Alexander towards her by the cloak. Alexander, meanwhile, was offering her a garland, while Hephaestion assisted as best man, holding a blazing torch and leaning against a young boy, probably Hymenaeus, the god of the weddings. On the other side more cupids were playing, this time among Alexander's armor; two heaved his spear, two dragged his shield by the hand-grips, on which sat a third, presumably their king; another had hidden under the breastplate, as if to ambush them.Alexander huwde de jonge Roxane, dochter van een koopman van Oxyartes
61 Alexander verovert verder 331 : GAUGAMELA : derde treffen met Darius III persoonlijkAlexander bezet Babylon, Susa en Persepolis en verovert de koninklijke schatten.Verovert verder tot aan de Indus …Alexander soldatenDarius III : soldaten
63 The Battle of Alexander 1529 Wood, 158,4 x 120,3 cm Alte Pinakothek, MunichThis is the most famous painting of Altdorfer. Its subject is the victory of the young Alexander the Great in 333 B.C. over the Persian army of King Darius in the battle of Issos. The battle in fact took place in Turkey, however, on this painting it is shown in the rocky environment of the Alps with German cities in the background.
64 Alexandrië Stichtte overal steden : Alexandrië Wilde Griekse en Oosterse cultuur samensmeltenWilde vrij verkeer voor allenWilde één nieuwe kosmopolitische beschaving
65 Eén kosmopolitische beschaving Door middel vanStimuleren soldaten om met Perziche vrouwen te huwenTrouwde zelf met inheemse prinses Rhoxane en met dochter van Dariussoldaten en 80 officieren huwenNa dood Alexander meeste huwelijken afgebrokenLiet overal Grieken achter met belangrijke politieke en militaire bevoegdheid
68 Alexander sterft Plannen voor zee-expeditie Koorts - ziek 33 jaar Geen opvolgerZijn veldheren (diadochen =opvolgers) maken zich meester van het rijk.Hardnekkige onderlinge oorlogen, berekende vriendschappen, moorden…3 veldheren riepen zich uit tot koning
73 Diadochen Seleucus : verloor afgelegen delen, die onafhankelijk werden Macedonië : onder Romeinse controle146 v C : Azië systematisch onder RomeinenEgypte langst : tot Pompejus & Caesar…
74 HellenismeKosmopolitische beschaving met instrument de Griekse taal moest de bestaande culturen vervangenSamensmelting van alle positieve elementen van elke beschavingTegelijk politiek, maatschappelijk, economisch en cultureel
75 Hellenisme, politiek Politieke macht goddelijke oorsprong (=oosters) Goddelijke oorsprong van koning=>bron van macht en rijkdom=>alleenheerser=>Liet zich in Egypte uitroepen tot zoon van God (opschudding bij volgelingen)Polis => KOSMOPOLIS
76 Hellenisme, politiek Alleenheerser Met doeltreffend machtsapparaat (Perzisch model) met satrapieën met burgerlijke en militaire verantwoordelijkenBetere wegen =>beter contact
77 Hellenisme, economie Grieken : talent voor zaken Geld : massaal aanwezig in PerziëHandel tussen oost en westAlexandrië (Eg) centrum handelsverkeerNieuwe steden aan kruispunten handelsroutesStaatsmonopolie, uitbatingen eigendom van koningGriekenland niet langer het centrum van de wereld, wel de steden op/aan eind handelsroutesA silver teradrachm coin minted late in Alexander's reign. This coin is an "official" portrait. They were produced in such huge amounts that, even today, they are not exceptionally rare and are available on the market at a modest price.
81 Hellenisme, godsdienst Oosterse godsdiensten maakten diepe indruk op
82 Belang Na hem keerde niets terug bij het oude Eén wereldrijk dankzij militair talent, durf en politiek inzichtWilde oost en west verenigenNa zijn dood bleven zijn opvolgers de wereld inrichten volgen het principe :Één volk, één staat, één koning.
83 Polis (Athene)Kosmopolis (Alexandrië)BestuurIedere polis, eigen bestuurRechtstreekse democratieAutonomie per polisÉén rijkVergoddelijkte koningGeen medezeggenschap
84 PoliskosmopolisTaalGrieks-Verschillende dialecten,Overige volkeren : barbaroiVeel talenHet Grieks als officiële taal
85 PoliskosmopolisVolkerenDe Atheense burgers : alle belangNiet-burgers zijn minderwaardigVermenging van volkeren en dus ook van culturen
86 PolisKosmopoisGodsdienstÉén godsdienstOlympische godenGriekse mythen en sagenVerschillende godsdiensten en goden – ook oosterseKoning vergoddelijkt
87 PolisKosmopolisWetenschappenUit eigen middenWetenschapsmensen van overal
88 PoliskosmopolisKunstStreven naar ideale vormen ten dienste van de godenRealistisch, pathetischIn dienst van de mens
89 Grootte van legers Some probable army sizes Macedonian invasion force of 334 BC - 36,000 Macedonians at Issus - 30,000 Macedonians at Gaugamela - 47,000 Macedonians at the Hydaspes - 41,000 Persians at the Granicus - 25,000 Persians at Issus - 100,000 Persians at Gaugamela - 90,000 Indians at the Hydaspes - 30,000
90 Van held tot dronkelap en psychopaat Bronnen ....JONA Lenderings boek over Alexander de Grote is niet zomaar het zoveelste in een lange reeks, maar biedt een vernieuwend overzicht vanuit een bijzondere invalshoek. Wij waren immers gewend aan allerlei visies op Alexander vanuit een Grieks, Europees standpunt. Lendering stoelt zijn studie ook op Aziatische commentaren. Dat levert een heel ander beeld opDe andere AlexanderVan held tot dronkelap en psychopaat
91 Jona LenderingDe ondergang van het Perzische rijk biedt ons een compleet nieuw beeld van de Macedonische heerser. Als geen ander weet Lendering door de traditionele Griekse propaganda heen te prikken, puttend uit de verrassende rijkdom van Babylonische en Iraanse bronnen.
92 Jona LenderingAan de hand van talloze vertalingen uit authentieke verslagen, waaronder recent ontcijferde kleitabletten, neemt Lendering ons mee op reis met Alexander. We trekken door verre landen met indrukwekkende landschappen, langs vreemde volkeren met andere culturen en ontmoeten gevaarlijke tegenstanders.Lenderings Alexander is niet louter een held of meedogenloze veroveraar, maar vooral een jonge leider gevangen tussen verschillende culturen, die één wilde zijn met alle mensen voor wie hij verantwoordelijk was en tegelijkertijd gezag moest uitstralen. Ook Alexanders belang rijkste tegenstander, de Perzische koning Darius III, wordt in een nieuw licht gezet, niet als de traditionele lafaard uit de Griekse bronnen, maar als een capabel generaal, knap22,95
94 hephaestionHephaestion was a Macedonian nobleman, closest friend and alledged lover of Alexander the Great.Born in Pella, the capital of Macedonian, Hephaestion was educated at the court of King Philip and became a childhood friend of Alexander. It was commonplace in this era for men to have male lovers although Alexander's mother Olympias was very jealous of his relationship with Hephaestion. The envy of all the court officials made Hephaestion an isolated man, dependent on and totally loyal to Alexander.Hephaestion accompanied Alexander the Great on many of his victorious battles, however, it is probable that Hephaestion was a better strategist and diplomat than commander.Hephaestion was Alexander's best man when he married Roxane, his first wife. Hephaestion later married a Persian princess, DrypetisIn 324B.C. Hephaestion fell ill and died. Alexander was shocked and grieved bitterly for Hephaestion, the person who had been closest to his heart.