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“KWALITEITSCULTUUR” in Europa Vlaams Bolognaproject

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1 “KWALITEITSCULTUUR” in Europa Vlaams Bolognaproject 2008-2009
Bolognaseminarie Brussel | 3 juni 2009 Lucien Bollaert

2 inhoud kwaliteitscultuur in Europa
ontstaan van IKZ IKZ in EHEA (Bologna) Quality culture project (EUA) Quality culture in EQAF Lee Harvey & Bjǿrn Stensaker besluiten

3 ontstaan kwaliteitscultuur in Europa
KZ/Q Control is ontstaan in industrie in de jaren ’50 Dr. W. Edwards Deming & Dr. Joseph M.Juran met inzichten uit jaren ‘40 naar Japan “quality is fitness for use”, zelfcontrole en “teaching everyone the principles of problem solving” (J.M.Juran) “Consumentenresearch is een continu proces waarbij het product voortdurend wordt verbeterd en veranderingen ondergaat om aan de wensen van de consument tegemoet te komen.” Deming, Elementary Principles of the Statistical Control of Quality, Nippon Kagaku Gijutsu Remmei JUSE, 1951 Doorbraak in de jaren ‘60

4 ontstaan kwaliteitscultuur in Europa
IKZ/TQC in de jaren ’70 “Kwaliteit is de mate waarin een product en/of dienst voldoet aan de verwachtingen of doelstellingen die alle betrokkenen daaromtrent koesteren of formuleren, en de mate waarin het product en/of dienst een ‘ongestoord’ genot biedt gedurende de normale levensduur ervan.” (J.M.Juran) Total = everyone & everything is involved Management = managed process which involves people, systems and supporting tools and techniques

5 ontstaan kwaliteitscultuur in Europa

6 ontstaan kwaliteitscultuur in Europa
TQM as change management to a customer-driven organisation: eind jaren ‘80 Maar, botsend op organisatiecultuur en/of dito klimaat Organisatiecultuur is “het systeem van door de leden gedeelde zingeving” S.P.Robbins, Gedrag in organisaties, 1992 “Organizational culture is defined as a set of shared values and norms held by employees that guide their interactions with peers, management, and clients” Svyantek & Bott in Comprehensive handbook of psychological assessment: industrial and organizational assessment, 2004 “Cultuurloosheid bestaat niet” Herman Van Den Broeck, Lerend management, verborgen krachten van managers en organisaties,1998 John A. Woods, The six Values of a Quality Culture, 1996

7 IKZ in EHEA kwaliteitscultuur in Europa
IKZ in hoger onderwijs: (eind) jaren ‘80 van inspectie naar externe KZ (audit panels) van externe naar interne KZ (bevragingen) opkomst “nationale kwaliteitsagentschappen” voor externe kwaliteitszorg in Europa: midden jaren ‘90 European Pilot Project for Evaluating Quality in Higher Education: : sharing & developing experiences Recommendation of the Council 98/561/EC of Bologna declaration: 1999 European Network for Quality Assurance in Higher Education (ENQA): 2000 European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education (ENQA): 2004

8 IKZ in EHEA kwaliteitscultuur in Europa
Bolognaproces (1999): “promotion of European co-operation in quality assurance with a view to developing comparable criteria and methodologies” Berlijn communiqué (2003): “The quality of higher education has proven to be at the heart of the setting up of a EHEA. … “They also stress that consistent with the principle of institutional autonomy, the primary responsibility for quality assurance in higher education lies with each institution itself and this provides the basis for real accountability of the academic system within the national quality framework. …”

9 IKZ in EHEA kwaliteitscultuur in Europa
“Therefore, they agree that by 2005 national quality assurance systems should include: · A definition of the responsibilities of the bodies and institutions involved. · Evaluation of programmes or institutions, including internal assessment, external review, participation of students and the publication of results. · A system of accreditation, certification or comparable procedures. · International participation, co-operation and networking. …”

10 IKZ in EHEA kwaliteitscultuur in Europa
At the European level, Ministers call upon ENQA through its members, in co-operation with the EUA, EURASHE and ESIB, to develop an agreed set of standards, procedures and guidelines on quality assurance, to explore ways of ensuring an adequate peer review system for quality assurance and/or accreditation agencies or bodies, and to report back through the Follow-up Group to Ministers in Due account will be taken of the expertise of other quality assurance associations and networks.” Bergen 2005: ESG aanvaard London 2007: Register & EQAF

11 Q Culture Project kwaliteitscultuur in Europa
Quality Culture Project van EUA: Vanuit tegenstand tegen IKZ vanuit traditionele HOI Vanuit de vaststelling dat IKZ niet optimaal werkt indien louter klemtoon op procedures, administratie en externe kwaliteitszorg Vanuit de “gewenning”, en dus neergang, van IKZ aan de externe cycli, procedures en kengetallen 3 ronden van 6 thematische netwerken: , , : 134 HOI, 36 landen: o.a. AKUL, AUG

12 Q Culture Project kwaliteitscultuur in Europa
“It is often the case that when speaking of quality, it is easy to revert back to such managerial concepts as quality control, quality mechanisms, quality management, etc. These concepts, however, are not neutral. They convey a technocratic and top-down approach that will backfire in academic settings. The self-perception of academics as successful professionals who are committed to excellence means that they dislike being managed.” Quality Culture in European Universities: a bottom-up approach, p. 6

13 Q Culture Project kwaliteitscultuur in Europa
“Therefore, the term ‘culture’ was chosen to convey a connotation of quality as a shared value and a collective responsibility for all members of an institution, including students and administrative staff.” Quality culture signals the need to ensure a grass-roots acceptance, to develop a compact within the academic community through effective community building, as well as change in values, attitude and behaviour within an institution.” Quality Culture in European Universities: a bottom-up approach, p. 6

14 Q Culture Project kwaliteitscultuur in Europa
Geen definitie van “kwaliteit”: 2 ronden discussie Quality as fitness for purpose, compliance (zero errors), as customer satisfaction, as excellence, as value for money, as transformation (process of changing the customer), as enhancement (process of changing the institution) Geen definitie van “kwaliteitscultuur” “Quality culture refers to an organisational culture that intends to enhance quality permanently and is characterised by two distinct elements: …” Quality Culture in European Universities: a bottom-up approach, p. 10

15 Q Culture Project kwaliteitscultuur in Europa
A cultural/psychological element of shared values, beliefs, expectations and commitments towards quality A structural/managerial element with defined processes that enhance quality and aim at coordinating individual efforts Thus, the cultural/psychological element refers back to individual staff members while the structural/managerial refers back to the institution Both elements must be linked through good communication, discussion and participatory processes at institutional level Quality Culture in European Universities: a bottom-up approach, p

16 Q Culture Project kwaliteitscultuur in Europa
Institutional autonomy and external accountability procedures are two factors that determine the maturity of quality culture in an institution Institutions characterised by a mature and successful quality culture are usually those that enjoy a high degree of autonomy Where external accountability procedures stress institutional responsibility and de-emphasise compliance with standards, institutional quality cultures are more mature and effective Quality Culture in European Universities: a bottom-up approach, p

17 Q Culture Project kwaliteitscultuur in Europa
Quality Culture Quality management Quality commitment Technocratic element Cultural element Tools and mechanisms to measure individual level: evaluate, assure, and enhance quality personal commitment to strive for quality collective level: individual attitudes add up to culture top-down bottom-up facilitate Quality Culture in European University: a bottom-up approach, p. 20 Communication Participation Trust

18 Q Culture EQAF kwaliteitscultuur in Europa
1st European Quality Assurance Forum (EQAF), München, 23 – 25 November 2006: Embedding Quality Culture in Higher Education Lucien Bollaert, Lee Harvey, et al, Embedding Quality Culture in Higher Education, EUA Case Studies 2007, p 8 open discussion, no definition, characteristics: Academic ownership of quality Recognition of need for a “non-bureaucratic” system of quality monitoring to ensure accountability (and compliance where required) and to facilitate improvement Primarily about the behaviour of stakeholders rather than the operation of a quality system

19 Q Culture EQAF kwaliteitscultuur in Europa
Quality system needs to have a clear purpose, which articulates with the quality culture A quality culture places students at the centre A quality culture is about partnership and co-operation, sharing of experiences and team working A quality culture is about supporting the individual as an autonomous scholar but not at the expense of the learning community; there is a symbiotic relationship between individual and community Leadership in a quality culture is inspirational rather than dictatorial. Leadership is at all levels in the institution and does not refer to just senior managers

20 Q Culture EQAF kwaliteitscultuur in Europa
A quality culture welcomes external critical evaluation from a variety of sources including formal external evaluations, external peers acting as critical friends, and internal peer review and support At heart a quality culture is about facilitating and encouraging reflexivity and praxis; self-reflection, developing improvement initiatives and implementing them. Is a QA system a prerequisite for the development of a quality culture or the other way around? They need to grow together in harmony!

21 Q Culture EQAF kwaliteitscultuur in Europa
BENEFITS OF A QUALITY CULTURE: Increases co-operation Gives students a voice that is heard Provides a strong front for an institution in a competitive higher education world Provides a context for change Champions innovation Allows staff to take risks, admit failure and learn from mistakes, IF external quality evaluations encourage improvement rather than compliance. Lee Harvey, Overview of discussions, in Embedding … , p

22 Harvey & Stensaker kwaliteitscultuur in Europa
Lee Harvey & Bjǿrn Stensaker, Quality Culture: understandings, boundaries and linkages European Journal of Education, vol. 43, No. 4, 2008, pp Short historical account of “culture”: anthropology Culture = system of shared beliefs, values, customs, behaviours, and artefacts, developed along three lines (civilised, artistic, way of life with subcultures) Cultural relativism = no absolute standards No culture can be judged superior to another Q culture as a part of broader organisational culture (having or being)

23 Harvey & Stensaker kwaliteitscultuur in Europa
Ideal-type Quality cultures in “Cultural Theory” framework degree of group-control STRONG WEAK Intensity of external rules STRONG responsive reactive WEAK regenerative reproductive Responsive QA: led by external demands (learning to improve from accountability issues and compliance requirements and culturally similar good practices) Reactive QA: reacts to external demands (taking advantage when action is linked to reward, so driven by compliance but reluctant to accountability, because of doubts about any improvement potential resulting from evaluation, mourning the loss of trust and autonomy; QC not owned but imposed) Regenerative QA: focused on internal developments, aware of external expectations (coordinated, dynamic plan for improvement and reconceptualisation in a learning organisation approach and wide-spread QC) Reproductive QA: focused on status quo (do best along established norms, but no (re)thinking; QC is based on individual aspirations and not transparent)

24 besluiten kwaliteitscultuur in Europa
Veel verwarring, geen definitie, weinig onderzoek Wel uiterst belangrijke onderbouw Organisatiecultuur en/of kwaliteitscultuur Altijd cultuur, welke? Één cultuur of verschillende (sub)culturen? Verschil tussen perceptie/werkelijkheid en wens/beleid Verschil tussen procedures, systematische en operationele KZ en KC en “verhaal” gericht naar collectief, mens of specialisatie gericht naar systeem, innovatie of traditie gericht naar binnen of/en naar buiten Band tussen kwaliteitscultuur, IKZ en resultaten?

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