ultracentrifuge A schematic diagram of the cross section of a single gas centrifuge. The rotating cylinder forces the heavier U-238 atoms towards the outside of the centrifuge while leaving the lighter U-235 more towards the middle.
SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES OF VARIOUS CHEMICAL FORMS OF DU, OF TRU WASTE, AND OF TYPICAL URANIUM ORE WITH 0.2% NATURAL URANIUM BY WEIGHT Chemical formSpecific activity, nCi/gm uranium metal (DU)400 uranium dioxide (DUO2) 350 uranium oxide (DU3O8) 340 transuranic activity in TRU or GTCC waste 1 >100 0.2% uranium ore4242 1 Slight differences between the U.S. EPA’s definition of TRU waste and NRC’s definition of GTCC (Greater Than Class C) waste as it relates to transuranic radionuclides are not material to this discussion because DU is comparable to either one. 2 The specific activity shown for 0.2% uranium ore includes all decay products of uranium-238 up to and including radium-226, assuming they are in secular equilibrium with uranium-238. Radon-222 and its decay products are not included in this number. All values in the table are given in round numbers.
World DU Inventory CountryOrganizationDU Stocks (in tonnes) Reported United StatesDOE480,0002002 RussiaFAEA460,0001996 FranceCOGEMA190,0002001 United KingdomBNFL30,0002001 GermanyUrenco16,0001999 JapanJNFL10,0002001 ChinaCNNC2,0002000 South KoreaKAERI2002002 South AfricaNECSA732001 TOTAL1,188,273
Gebruik DU-metaal •Civiele Toepassingen •Militaire Toepassingen Hoge dichtheid: 19.05 g/cm 3 Bijna twee maal zo hoog als die van lood
Civiel gebruik Contragewichten / Balansgewichten vliegtuigen, zeilboten, vorkheftrucks, kranen Gewichten olieboren, gyroscooprotoren Bouwmateriaal soort beton: DUcrete Beschermingsplaten tegen Röntgenstraling Vaatwanden van vaten voor KSA / hoog actief afval
DU Use in the Balkans Bosnia 1994/1995 (Sarajevo) 10,800 rounds (DoD, Jan 4, 2001) 2927 kg of DU Major focus: around Sarajevo Kosovo 1999 31,000 rounds (NATO, Feb 7, 2000) 8401 kg of DU Major focus: an area west of the Pec-Dakovica-Prizren highway, in the area surrounding Klina, in the area around Prizren and in an area to the north of a line joining Suva Reka and Urosevac
DU Use in the Balkans (2) Southern Serbia Presevo 161 rounds (local reports, Dec 11, 2006) Cleanup operations costs: € 350,000 (Xinhua, Dec 12, 2006) Borovac 44 DU rounds (AP Dec. 13, 2005) Bratoselce 100 kg of DU in soil; 2.5 tons of contaminated earth stored in the Vinca institute's facilities Cleanup costs: 15 million dinars (US$ 260,000). (Serbian Government Nov. 10, 2003) Montenegro Cape Arza on Lustica Peninsula 242 whole DU penetrators and 49 fragments (75 kg of uranium) were found and disposed of safely. Approximately 7 tons of contaminated material (aluminium jackets, soil, pieces of rocks, dead leaves and needles) were also removed. (IRPA 11, Madrid, Spain, 23-28 May 2004)
Analyse DU-munitie Balkan •Sporen gevonden van U-236, Pu, Co-60, and Cs-137 in DU •Oorzaak: DU was van verrijkingsfabrieken, die gebruikt werden voor het verrijken van opgewerkt uranium
DU Ammunition Used in the 1991 Gulf War BranchWeapon System Ammo SizeQuantity of DU rounds Weight of DU (kg) US Army M1 tank M1A1 tank 105mm 120mm 504 9,048 1,930 37,293 US Air Force A-10 jet A-16 jet 30mm 782,514 1,000 236,319 302 US Marine Corps AV-8B Harrier M60A3, M1A1 25mm 105, 120mm 67,436 unknown 9,981 unknown US Navy Phalanx Gun20mmunknown UK Navy Challenger tank 120 mm88408 Totals Tanks 9,640 Jets 850,950 Tanks 39,631 Jets 246,602 Total 286,233
Jefferson Proving Ground 1983 – 1994: 100,000 kg of DU penetrators Estimation cleanup costs: US$45 m - US$1.613 b Removal contaminated soil: US$1.365 b Off-site disposal: US$111 m Source: “Decommissioning Plan for License Sub-1435 - Jefferson Proving Ground [JPG], Madison, Indiana. Submitted by the U.S. Army's Soldier and Biological and Chemical Command to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), June, 2002
Limit of DU-oxides intake US Nuclear Regulatory Commission: inhaling 10 mg can cause health problems The United Kingdom: 8 mg is harmful for workers in the nuclear industry more than 2 mg is unacceptable for the general public The WHO estimates: daily intake of 0.6 microgram per kilogram body weight (daily limit of 40 microgram for a person of 68 kg) For comparison: one 120mm DU antitank shell after impact on a hard target can disperse 950 gram of DU oxides and a 30mm one of an A-10 96 gram
Pathways of DU in human body •schematic overviews are out of date •Important scientific research omitted on cell level: e.g. bystander effect