De presentatie wordt gedownload. Even geduld aub

De presentatie wordt gedownload. Even geduld aub

Herkomst [Civiele en] Militaire Toepassingen

Verwante presentaties

Presentatie over: "Herkomst [Civiele en] Militaire Toepassingen"— Transcript van de presentatie:

1 Herkomst [Civiele en] Militaire Toepassingen
Depleted Uranium (DU) Herkomst [Civiele en] Militaire Toepassingen

2 Kernketen

3 uraniumverrijking Verrijking van het splijtbare isotoop U235 in natuurlijk uranium Meest gebruikt: ultracentrifuge en gasdiffusie Uranium hexafluoride (UF6) of Hex Product: verrijkt uranium (LEU) Bijproduct: verarmd uranium (DU)


5 ultracentrifuge A schematic diagram of the cross section of a single gas centrifuge. The rotating cylinder forces the heavier U-238 atoms towards the outside of the centrifuge while leaving the lighter U-235 more towards the middle.

6 Uranium Weight % U-238 U-235 U-234 Natural Uranium 99.284 0.711 0.0053
Depleted Uranium 99.8 0.2 0.0006 LEU (LWRs) 96.471 3.5 0.029

7 DUF6




11 DUF6 Storage in Siberia

12 Specific activity, nCi/gm uranium metal (DU) 400
SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES OF VARIOUS CHEMICAL FORMS OF DU, OF TRU WASTE, AND OF TYPICAL URANIUM ORE WITH 0.2% NATURAL URANIUM BY WEIGHT Chemical form Specific activity, nCi/gm uranium metal (DU) 400 uranium dioxide (DUO2) 350 uranium oxide (DU3O8) 340 transuranic activity in TRU or GTCC waste1 >100 0.2% uranium ore 42 1 Slight differences between the U.S. EPA’s definition of TRU waste and NRC’s definition of GTCC (Greater Than Class C) waste as it relates to transuranic radionuclides are not material to this discussion because DU is comparable to either one. 2 The specific activity shown for 0.2% uranium ore includes all decay products of uranium-238 up to and including radium-226, assuming they are in secular equilibrium with uranium-238. Radon-222 and its decay products are not included in this number. All values in the table are given in round numbers.


14 World DU Inventory Country Organization DU Stocks (in tonnes) Reported
United States DOE 480,000 2002 Russia FAEA 460,000 1996 France COGEMA 190,000 2001 United Kingdom BNFL 30,000 Germany Urenco 16,000 1999 Japan JNFL 10,000 China CNNC 2,000 2000 South Korea KAERI 200 South Africa NECSA 73 TOTAL 1,188,273

15 Gebruik DU-metaal Civiele Toepassingen Militaire Toepassingen
Hoge dichtheid: g/cm3 Bijna twee maal zo hoog als die van lood

16 Civiel gebruik vliegtuigen, zeilboten, vorkheftrucks, kranen
Contragewichten / Balansgewichten vliegtuigen, zeilboten, vorkheftrucks, kranen Gewichten olieboren, gyroscooprotoren Bouwmateriaal soort beton: DUcrete Beschermingsplaten tegen Röntgenstraling Vaatwanden van vaten voor KSA / hoog actief afval


18 Militair gebruik Antitankgranaten
gevechtstoestellen / -voertuigen: 25mm, 30mm MBT tanks: 105mm, 120mm, 125mm Gemonteerd in bepantsering van pantservoertuigen / tanks

19 M1A1 Tank

20 Challenger Tank

21 Leclerc Tank


23 Kinetic Energy Penetrator [1]
Dwarsdoorsnede van een 120mm antitankgranaat

24 Kinetic Energy Penetrator [2]
In vlucht naar een gepantserd doel, waarbij de ‘sabot’ verloren gaat


26 Bradley Fighting Vehicle


28 LAV-25


30 Harrier AV-8B

31 A-10 grondaanvalstoestel
A-10 toestel vuurt 30mm DU antitankgranaten op een tank









40 DU Use in the Balkans Bosnia 1994/1995 (Sarajevo)
10,800 rounds (DoD, Jan 4, 2001) 2927 kg of DU Major focus: around Sarajevo Kosovo 1999 31,000 rounds (NATO, Feb 7, 2000) 8401 kg of DU Major focus: an area west of the Pec-Dakovica-Prizren highway, in the area surrounding Klina, in the area around Prizren and in an area to the north of a line joining Suva Reka and Urosevac

41 DU Use in the Balkans (2) Southern Serbia Presevo
161 rounds (local reports, Dec 11, 2006) Cleanup operations costs: € 350,000 (Xinhua, Dec 12, 2006) Borovac 44 DU rounds (AP Dec. 13, 2005) Bratoselce 100 kg of DU in soil; 2.5 tons of contaminated earth stored in the Vinca institute's facilities Cleanup costs: 15 million dinars (US$ 260,000). (Serbian Government Nov. 10, 2003) Montenegro Cape Arza on Lustica Peninsula 242 whole DU penetrators and 49 fragments (75 kg of uranium) were found and disposed of safely. Approximately 7 tons of contaminated material (aluminium jackets, soil, pieces of rocks, dead leaves and needles) were also removed. (IRPA 11, Madrid, Spain, May 2004)


43 Analyse DU-munitie Balkan
Sporen gevonden van U-236, Pu, Co-60, and Cs-137 in DU Oorzaak: DU was van verrijkingsfabrieken, die gebruikt werden voor het verrijken van opgewerkt uranium

44 DU Ammunition Used in the 1991 Gulf War
Branch Weapon System Ammo Size Quantity of DU rounds Weight of DU (kg) US Army M1 tank M1A1 tank 105mm 120mm 504 9,048 1,930 37,293 US Air Force A-10 jet A-16 jet 30mm 782,514 1,000 236,319 302 US Marine Corps AV-8B Harrier M60A3, M1A1 25mm 105, 120mm 67,436 unknown 9,981 US Navy Phalanx Gun 20mm UK Navy Challenger tank 120 mm 88 408 Totals Tanks 9,640 Jets ,950 Tanks 39,631 Jets ,602 Total 286,233




48 Jefferson Proving Ground
1983 – 1994: 100,000 kg of DU penetrators Estimation cleanup costs: US$45 m - US$1.613 b Removal contaminated soil: US$1.365 b Off-site disposal: US$111 m Source: “Decommissioning Plan for License Sub Jefferson Proving Ground [JPG], Madison, Indiana. Submitted by the U.S. Army's Soldier and Biological and Chemical Command to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), June, 2002

49 Limit of DU-oxides intake
US Nuclear Regulatory Commission: inhaling 10 mg can cause health problems The United Kingdom: 8 mg is harmful for workers in the nuclear industry more than 2 mg is unacceptable for the general public The WHO estimates: daily intake of 0.6 microgram per kilogram body weight (daily limit of 40 microgram for a person of 68 kg) For comparison: one 120mm DU antitank shell after impact on a hard target can disperse 950 gram of DU oxides and a 30mm one of an A gram

50 Pathways of DU in human body
schematic overviews are out of date Important scientific research omitted on cell level: e.g. bystander effect

Download ppt "Herkomst [Civiele en] Militaire Toepassingen"

Verwante presentaties

Ads door Google