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LPI 2010 NLLGG Trainer: Jeroen van Pelt Bijeenkomst 2: Basistaken op de Commandoregel, Bestandsbeheer 27.2.2010.

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Presentatie over: "LPI 2010 NLLGG Trainer: Jeroen van Pelt Bijeenkomst 2: Basistaken op de Commandoregel, Bestandsbeheer 27.2.2010."— Transcript van de presentatie:

1 LPI 2010 NLLGG Trainer: Jeroen van Pelt Bijeenkomst 2: Basistaken op de Commandoregel, Bestandsbeheer

2  Terugblik bijeenkomst 1  LPI 103.1: Work on the command line  Theorie  Praktijk  LPI 103.3: Perform basic file management  Theorie  Praktijk  LPI 103.4: Use streams, pipes and redirects  Theorie  Praktijk  Afronding en huiswerk Agenda

3  Candidates should be able to interact with shells and commands using the command line. The objective assumes the bash shell.  Key Knowledge Areas  Use single shell commands and one line command sequences to perform basic tasks on the command line.  Use and modify the shell environment including defining, referencing and exporting environment variables.  Use and edit command history.  Invoke commands inside and outside the defined path.  Boek: 1.6 – 2.1 – 2.2 – 2.3 – 2.4 LPI 103.1: Work on the command line

4  Bourne Shell: /bin/sh  Bourne Again Shell: /bin/bash  Bestanden en directories  Aanvullen van opdrachten  Variabelen  Environment (/etc/profile - /home/user/.profile)  Tijdelijk  Exporteren (export, unset)  History (ba)sh

5  Virtuele consoles ([Ctrl]-Alt-F1)  Andere gebruikers  worden (su [-])  Informatie opvragen (users, who, w, finger)  /bin/passwd  -d  -l  -u  -e Gebruikers

6  Candidates should be able to use the basic Linux commands to manage files and directories.  Key Knowledge Areas  Copy, move and remove files and directories individually.  Copy multiple files and directories recursively.  Remove files and directories recursively.  Use simple and advanced wildcard specifications in commands.  Using find to locate and act on files based on type, size, or time.  Usage of tar, cpio and dd.  Boek: 2.7 LPI 103.3: Perform basic file management

7  pwd (Present Working Directory)  cd (Change Directory – let op ‘-’)  mkdir (Make Directory – let op ‘-p’)  rmdir (Remove Directory – beter: rm –r[f]) Werken met directories

8  ls (list)  rm (remove)  cp (copy)  mv (move – ook hernoemen)  file (file type)  touch (files maken/’touchen’)  cat (files samenvoegen/’printen’) Werken met bestanden

9  find [subtrees] [conditions] [actions]  -name [FNG] # Zoek naar File Name Glob  -type c # Type bestand[bcdfl]  -size [+-]# # Heeft een +- grootte in blocks (c: bytes, # k: kilobytes)  -user [name] # Eigenaar is name  -atime [+-]# # Accessed days ago. +n means the # file has not been accessed for the # last n days. -n means the file has # been accessed in the last n days.  -mtime [+-]# # Veranderd dagen geleden  -perm nnn # Heeft permissie vlaggen nnn Bestanden vinden met find - 1

10  Voorbeelden:  find. -name '*.[ch]' -print  find /var /tmp. -size +20 -print  find ~ -type c -name '*sys*' -print  find / -type f -size +2c -exec rm -i {} \;  find / -atime -3 -print  find ~jo ~toto -user chloe -exec mv {} /tmp \; Bestanden vinden met find - 2

11  anders dan met find  whereis  which  locate Bestanden vinden

12  tar (Tape ArchiveR)  -zxvf  -zcvf tar Th0msn80Th0msn80 (Wikipedia)

13  cpio  find. -depth -print | cpio -ov > tree.cpio (archival)  cpio -t < tree.cpio (list)  cpio -id < cpiofile (extract)  Onderdeel van o.a. RedHat Package Manager cpio

14  Low level kopiëren en converteren van raw data  Wikipedia: “dd is used to copy a specified number of bytes or blocks, performing on-the-fly byte order conversions”bytesbyte order dd

15  ISO maken van CDROM:  dd if=/dev/cdrom of=/home/sam/myCD.iso bs=2048 conv=sync,notrunc  Partittie dupliceren:  dd if=/dev/sda2 of=/dev/sdb2 bs=4096 conv=notrunc,noerror  Harde schijf/partitie wissen:  dd if=/dev/urandom of=/dev/had  Meer voorbeelden:  dd voorbeelden

16  Candidates should be able to redirect streams and connect them in order to efficiently process textual data. Tasks include redirecting standard input, standard output and standard error, piping the output of one command to the input of another command, using the output of one command as arguments to another command and sending output to both stdout and a file.  Key Knowledge Areas  Redirecting standard input, standard output and standard error.  Pipe the output of one command to the input of another command.  Use the output of one command as arguments to another command.  Send output to both stdout and a file.  Boek: 1.6 LPI 103.4: Use streams, pipes and redirects

17  Basis  0 = &0 = standard input (STDIN)  1 = &1 = standard output (STDOUT)  2 = &2 = standard error (STDERR)  Redirect STDOUT/ERR  ls –l 2&1> allout STD*

18  tee  xargs  <  <<  >  >>  |  `` Redirecting & Piping

19  ls -l /dev | more  ls -l /etc/*.conf | grep user | grep 500  ls -l /bin | mail `users`  ls -l /dev | tee file  ls -l /etc | tee -a file  ls f* | xargs cat  find ~ -name 'proj1*' print | xargs cat  grep try /etc/* 2> /dev/null  grep try /etc/* > /dev/null 2> /dev/null Voorbeelden

20  Lees in boek:  3.1: Mounten van schijven (p65-70)  3.2: Een overzicht van gemounte apparaten (p70-77)  3.6: Werken met links (p86-91)  18: Opstarten van Linux (p )  Herhaal de opdrachten van bijeenkomst 2 Huiswerk:


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